Syllabus/Model Q.P/e-Resourses

e- RESOURCES

 e- Lessons Prepared  by  the Faculty and Students


2016-2017 SECOND B.SC NEW SYLLABUS


NEW SYLLABUS    

ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE (Autonomous) VIJAYAWADA-08
    II B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS- THEORY
 PAPER – III; SEMESTER – III
 (Paper – III: Plant Taxonomy and Embryology)

    UNIT - I: Introduction to Plant Taxonomy       
                                       
1.      Fundamental components of Taxonomy (Identification, nomenclature, classification types and phylogeny)
2.      Salient features and comparative account of Bentham & Hooker and Engler & Prantl classification
3.      Role of Chemotaxonomy, Cytotaxonomy and Taximetrics in relation to Taxonomy

UNIT – II: Taxonomic Resources         
                                                     
1.      Nomenclature and Taxonomic resources: An introduction to International code of Botanical Nomenclature; Principles, Rules and Recommendations, Herbaria, Botanical Gardens of the World, Botanical Keys.
2.      Systematic study and economic importance of plants belonging to the following families Annonaceae, Caparidaceae, Rutaceae, Curcurbitaceae, and Apiaceae

UNIT – III: Systematic Taxonomy      
                                           
1.      Systematic study and economic importance of plants belonging to the following families Asteraceae, Sapotaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Orchidaceae and Poaceae.

 UNIT – IV: Embryology    
                                                                        
1.      Introduction: History and Importance of Embryology.
2.      Microsporogenesis : Microspore and development of male gametophyte.
3.      Palynology : Principles and applications
4.      Megasporogenesis; Monosporic (Polygonum) Bisporic (Allium) and Terasporic (Adoxa) types of female gametophyte/embryo sac development.


UNIT – V: Embryogeny

      1    Embryo – Development of Monocot and Dicot embryo (with one example)
2    Polyembryony and Apomixis – and outline.
3    Endosperm –Nuclear, Cellular and Helobial endosperm.



     ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE (Autonomous) VIJAYAWADA-08         
     II B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS, SEMESTER – IV, 
PAPER – IV
 (Plant Physiology and Metabolism


UNIT – I: Plant – Water relations     
                                                                     
1.      Importance of water to plant life, physical properties of water
2.      Diffusion, imbibition and osmosis; Concept of water potential
3.      Absorption, transport of water, ascent of sap
                               4.Transpiration – Structure of stomata, mechanism of stomata opening and closing and factors effecting transpiration.
UNIT – II: Mineral nutrition and Enzymes         
                                                 
1.       Mineral Nutrition : Essential macro and micro mineral nutrients and their role, mineral  nutrients uptake (active and passive), deficiency symptoms of nutrients
2.       Nitrogen cycle – Biological nitrogen fixation
3.       Enzymes: Nomenclature, characteristics and enzyme action (Lock and Key theory and Induced fit theory)
UNIT – III: Photosynthesis   
                                                                      
1.      Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, absorption and action spectra; Red drop and Emerson enhancement effect, concept of two photosystems, mechanism of photosynthetic electron transport and evolution of oxygen, photophosphorylation, carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4, and CAM.
2.      Photorespiration.
3.      Translocation of organic substances- Mechanism of phloem transport, source-sink relationships.

UNIT: IV: Plant Metabolism     
                                                                 
1.      Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic, Krebs cycle, electron transport system, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, Pentose phosphate pathway.
2.      Lipid Metabolism : Structure and functions of lipids, conversion of lipids to carbohydrates, Beta-oxidation
3.      Types of  phosphorylation: ATP – Synthesis (Substrate level, Oxidative and Photophosphorylation)

UNIT – V: Growth and Development      
                                                
1.      Growth and Development : Definition, Synthesis and  physiological effects of phytohormones – auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA, ethylene
2.      Physiology of flowering and photoperiodism, role of phytochrome in flowering.
3.      Stress Physiology: Concept and plant responses to water and temperature stresses.




BOTANY DEGREE SYLLABUS- 2014-15 
DEPT. OF BOTANY
  ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE
                       
                   
I B.Sc., SEMESTER-I: BOTANY PAPER-I
(PLANT DIVERSITY-I MICROBIOLOGY, ALGAE, FUNGI & PLANT PATHOLOGY)
TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                           TOTAL CREDITS: 03

UNIT-I: (12-Periods)
  
a) Bacteria: Introduction, Structure, Nutrition, Reproduction and Economic importance.
b) Viruses     : Structure, Replication and Transmission of viruses

UNIT-ii: (15-Periods)
 a) General characters of Algae
 b) Thallus organization in Algae
 c) Economic importance of Algae (Special focus on Biofertilizers)
 d) Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera
           
Chlorophyceae-    Oedogonium
Phaeophyceae-     Ectocarpus
Rhodophyceae-    Polysiphonia
Cyanophyceae-   General account only                                                                                      

UNIT-iii: (13-Periods)
 a) General characters of Fungi
b) Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera
     (Developmental stages are not included)
Mastigomycotina:   Albugo
Zygomycotina:        Mucor
Ascomycotina:       Penicillium
Basidiomycotina:  Puccinia
Deuteromycotina- Collectotrichum
c) Lichens-      General account only.

UNIT-iv: (06-Periods)
a)Concept of plant disease- Introduction, terminology
b)  Symptoms of plant diseases caused by Bacteria- Necrosis, Spot,   Blights, Blast, Scorch, Canker, Damping off, Anthracnose, Die-back, Ring spots, Rot, Wilt, Scab
c) Symptoms of plant diseases caused by Fungi- Rust, Smut, mildew, Galls, Warts,
d) Symptoms of plant diseases caused by Viruses- Leaf curls, Witches broom and Chlorosis

UNIT-V: (06-Periods)
a) Diseases of plants caused by
Fungi      : Red rot of sugar cane
Bacteria:   Citrus canker
 Bhendi vein clearing Virus
 b) Principles of plant disease control
           Prevention- Quarantine, Eradication
           Treatment- Physical methods, Chemical methods
           Immunization- Disease resistance

Suggested readings:
1. Pandey, B.P. 2001.College Botany. Vol. I.Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria , Viruses, Plant Pathology, Industrial Microbiology and  Bryophyata. S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Alexopolous, J.and W.M. Charles. 1988. Introduction to Mycology. Wiley Eastern,  New   Delhi.
3. Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S.2006. A Textbook of  plant  Pathology. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd.,   New Delhi.
4. Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S.2006. A  Textbook  of Algae. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
5.  Sharma, O.P.1992. Text Book  of  Thallophyta. McGraw Hill Publishing Co.New Delhi.
6.  Steiner, R.Y Adel berg, 5th edition, Prentice hall of India, New Delhi
7. Pelzer, M.J. Chan, E.C.S and Krieg, 5th edition, Mc Graw Hill publishing Co, ltd, New Delhi
Website address:  www. botany.com
                    www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany         
                                                                                            

                                                               BOT-122
I. B.Sc., SEMESTER-II: BOTANY PAPER-II
(PLANT DIVERSITY-II BRYOPHYTA, PTERIDOPHYTA, GYMNOSPERMS AND PALAEOBOTANY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                  TOTAL CREDITS:03                                                                   

UNIT-I:  (11-Peroids)

  a. General characters of Bryophyta
  b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera (Developmental 
      stages not included)
  Hepaticopsida        :  Marchantia
 Anthocerotopsida   :  Anthoceros
 Bryopsida               :  Polytrichum

UNIT-II: (13-Periods)
 a. General   characters of Pteridophyta                                
 b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following   genera (Developmental  
     stages not included)
Lycopsida       : Lycopodium
Sphenopsida :  Equisetum
Pteropsida:      Marsilea

UNIT-III :( 14-Periods)
a. General characters of Gymnosperms
b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera (Developmental 
   stages are not included )
Coniferopsida:   Pinus
Gnetopsida      : Gnetum

UNIT-IV:  (08-Periods)
a. Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes 
b. Stelar Evolution in Pteridophytes
c. General characters of Rhynia and Bennettitales
UNIT-V:  (06-Periods)
a. Types of Fossils: petrifications, Compressions, Impressions, Molds and Casts
b. Process of Fossilization
c. Geological time scale (Brief account)

Suggested Readings:
1. Sporne, K.R.1965. Morphology of Gymnosperms. Hutchison Co., Ltd., London.
2. Pandey, B.P. 2001. College Botany, Vol. I: Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria, Viruses, Plant
   Pathology, Industrial Microbiology  and Bryophyta. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Pandey, B.P.2006. College Botany, Vol. II: Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Paleobotany.
   S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Vashitha , P.C., A.K. Sinha and Anil kumar. 2006. Botany –Pteridophyta (Vascular  Cryptogams)
    S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.    
5. H. N. Srivastava – Fundamental of Pteridophyta, Pradeep publications, Jalandar      
6. Parihar- Text book of Bryophyta 
Website address::          www. botany.com
                             www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          
                                                                             
                                                                                                            BOT-233
                                           II B.Sc., SEMESTER-III: BOTANY PAPER-III                    
(PLANT REPRODUCTION AND PLANT DEVELOPMENT)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                TOTAL CREDITS: 03

PLANT REPRODUCTION:

UNIT-I:(10-Periods)
a)   Structure of  mature anther and  pollen grain and development of male gametophyte
b) Types of mega sporangia (ovules) - Orthrotropous, Anatropous, Hemi anatropous, Campylotropous, Amphitropous and Circinotropous ovules.
c) Development of female gametophyte
d) Types of embryo sacs (Monosporic, Bisporic and Tetrasporic) 
e) Process of double fertilization, Hetero fertilization
f)  Endosperm - Nuclear, Helobial and Cellular endosperm.                                              

UNIT-II: (14- Periods)
a) Embryogeny – Development of Dicot and  Monocot embryo (with one example)
b) Polyembryony; Introduction, Process of Polyembryony and importance
c) Palynology : Pollen grain structure, sporoderm stratification, apertures, NPC system
Morphology of pollen grains-Tribulus, Ocimum and Maize
                        Applications of Palynology

 PLANT DEVELOPMENT:
UNIT-III: (10- Periods)
a)  Meristems- Introduction, classification.
b) Theories of  Root Apical Meristems (RAM), Shoot Apical Meristems (SAM) and   Root-Stem transition.

UNIT-IV: (08- Periods)
a) Epidermal tissue system- Epidermis, Stomata, Epidermal outgrowths
b)Ground and Vascular tissue systems- Cortex, Endodermis, Pericycle and Medulla
c) Vascular tissue system- Xylem, Phloem and Types of vascular bundles.
d)Anatomy of Dicot and Monocot Root.
e) Anatomy of  primary Dicot and Monocot  Stem
f) Anatomy of Dicot and Monocot Leaf.
UNIT-V;  (10-Periods)

a) Normal secondary growth in dicot stem
b) Anomalous secondary growth in Boerhaavia and Dracaena
c) Wood Anatomy;   Texture of wood, Identification of wood, Seasoning and  preservation of  wood, Systematic position and  Anatomical aspects of wood – teakwood and  red sanders
Suggested Readings:

1. Johri, B.M. 1984. Embryology of Angiosperms. Springer-Verleg, Berlin.
2. Kapil, R.P.1986. Pollination Biology. Inter India Publishers, New Delhi.
3. Bhojwani, S.S. and S.P.Bhatnagar. 2000. The Embryology of Angiosperms (4th Ed.), Vikas  Publishing House, Delhi.
4. Esau, K. 1971.Anatomy of Seed Plants. John Wiley and Son,  USA.
5. Plant Anatomy by Elizabeth Cutler
6. Plant Anatomy by Falm
Website address:         www. botany.com
                           www. wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          

     
                                
                                                                                 BOT-244
                          II B.Sc., SEMESTER-IV: BOTANY PAPER-IV                                     
(ECOLOGY, CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                              TOTAL CREDITS: 03
                                                             

UNIT -I:  (10-Periods)         

a) Brief account of Ecological Factors: Climatic (Light, Temperature), Edaphic & Biotic factors
b)  Plant succession: Process and theories of Succession,
     Types of Succession- Hydrosere and Xerosere,
c) Population Ecology: Natural Vegetation of India
d) Biodiversity: Introduction, Endangered, Endemic, Key stone Species and Hotspots (Brief account).                                                                               
UNIT-II: 8-periods)
a) Ultra Structure of the plant cell and cell organelles (cell wall, plasma membrane, golgi complex,   
endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, ribosomes and nucleus)
b) Chromosome:  Structure, types of chromosomes, organization of chromosome ( Multistranded view, folded fibril model, Nucleosome model)
c) Cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis.
UNIT-III:  (12-Periods)
a) Mendel’s laws of inheritance.
b) Linkage- introduction, Kinds of Linkage and significance.
c)  Crossing over- Introduction, mechanism, theories and types of crossing over.
d) Mutations – Introduction, types of mutations, physical and chemical mutagens.
e) Polyploidy- Introduction, Autopolyploids and Allopolyploids.
d) Gene: Concept, Structure and functions.
UNIT-IV:  (10-Periods)
a) Plant Tissue Culture: Introduction, components of media, types of media,   preparation and  sterilization of culture media.
b) Micro propagation   : Somatic embryogenesis, embryo culture and its                                                                                            applications, applications of micro propagation.  

UNIT –V: (10-Periods)                    
                                                                                   
a)    Somatic hybridization: Isolation of protoplasts, somatic hybridization and its  applications.                                               
  b) Transgenic plants; Genetically modified crops (Bt Cotton)

Suggested Readings:
1. Harris, N. and K.J. Oparka. 1994. Plant Cell Biology: A Practical Approach. IRL Press at
   University Press, Oxford. UK.
2. Kormondye, E. 1989. Concepts of Ecology (3rd Ed.) Printice Hall of India, New Delhi
3. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Diversity of Microbes, Croptogams, Cell
   Biology a nd Genetics. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Sharma, P.D.1989. Elements  of  Ecology. Rastogi Publications, Meerut.
5. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal. 2004. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution                                        Website address:         www. botany.com
                         www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany         

                                                            
 GE: 240-HM
 II B.Sc., SEMESTER-III & IV: BOTANY GENERAL ELECTIVE
(HERBAL MEDICINE)
TOTAL PERIODS: 51                                                                      TOTAL CREDITS: 02

UNIT-I: (15-Periods)
1. Role of plants in medicine: Introduction to Herbal medicine, Brief account of 
                                                 Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Allopathy
2. Crude Drugs: Chemical, Pharmacological classification, Sources of crude Drugs

UNIT-II:(08-Periods)
Pharmacognosy: Definition, Pharmacognosy of the following plants
               a. Drugs obtained from roots:                        Hemidesmus indicus
                                                                                      Withania somnifera
               b. Drugs obtained from underground stems: Curcuma longa
                                                                                     Zingiber officinale
 UNIT-III: (08-Periods)
                                                                                    
               c. Drugs obtained from bark:                        Cinchona officinalis
                                                                                     Terminalia arjuna
                                                                       
               d. Drugs obtained from stem and wood:      Santalum album
                                                                                     Acacia catechu
UNIT-IV: (08-Periods)
               
               e. Drugs obtained from leaves:                     Adhotoda vasica
                                                                                     Aloe vera

               f. Drugs obtained from flowers:                 Artemisia vulgaris
                                                                                   Leonotis neptiifoli
 UNIT-V: (12-Periods)
                                                        
                g. Drugs obtained from Fruits:                  Coriandrum sativum
                                                                                   Foeniculum vulgare
                h. Drugs obtained from Seeds:                  Tribulus terrestris
                                                                                   Trigonella foenum-graceum
                i. Drugs obtained from all parts of the plant Body Catharanthus roseus
                                                                                               Gymnema sylvestre

Note: Botanical name, Family, Vernacular name, Botanical description, important chemical constituents and Practical applications only
  
Suggested readings:
1. Jain, S.K. and V.Mudgal. 1999. A Handbook of Ethno botany. Bishen Singh Mahendra   
     Pal Singh, Dehradun.
2. Rastogi, R.R. and B.N. Melrotra. 1993. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol.
    I & Vol. II. CSIR, Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi.

                                                                                                                                      

                                                                                     BOT-355
                                                    III B.Sc. SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-V
                                       (BIOSYSTEMATICS & PLANT PHYSIOLOGY)
TOTAL PERIODS:                                     TOTAL CREDITS: 03                                                  
                                                         
BIOSYSTEMATICS:

UNIT-I:

a) INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY 
    Introduction, Objectives and functions of taxonomy,
    Units and Principles of classification.
b)  Preparation and preservation of Herbarium, with a note on BSI activities related to Herbarium

c) NOMENCLATURE:
                  Binomial nomenclature,
                 Generic and specific epithet, author’s citation,
                  ICBN - principles and rules,
                 Taxonomic rank, type concept and principle of priority
UNIT-II:

  CLASSIFICATION OF ANGIOSPERMS:
      a)  Bentham and Hooker’s system of classification
      b) Takhtajan system of classification 
  
UNIT-III:

 SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING 
      FAMILIES: 
      Annonaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Apiaceae

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

UNIT-IV:

 WATER RELATIONS
a) Physical properties of water, diffusion, imbibition, osmosis, concept of water
     potential and Plasmolysis.
   ASCENT OF SAP- Introduction and Mechanism of Ascent of sap

   TRANSPIRATION- Introduction, types of transpiration, structure of stomata, mechanism of 
    stomatal opening and closing, and Factors affecting transpiration.

 b)  ENZYMES: Introduction, structure and properties of enzymes,
     Nomenclature and classification of enzymes
     Enzymatic action – Lock and key theory and Induced fit theory.
       
UNIT-V
a) PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Introduction, chloroplast structure, photosynthetic pigments, Hill reaction, Emerson enhancement effect, PSI and PSII, electron transport and proton transport,     Photophosphorylation, Carbon reduction pa
th ways- C3, C4, CAM. Photorespiration,factors affecting photosynthesis.

b) Translocation of organic solutes- source and sink relationship, mechanism of
translocation.
    
Suggested readings:
 1. Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to  Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Ne York, USA.
2. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Plant Physiology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Ecology  and Utilization of Plants. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New  Delhi.
3. Davis, P.H. and V.H. Heywood. 1963. Principals of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver and Boyd, London.
4. Heywood, V.H. and D.H. Moore (Eds). 1984. Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy.
5. Fundamentals of plant physiology-Dr. V.K. Jain- S. Chand publications
6. Plant physiology- S. Mukherji and A.K. Ghosh- New central book agency
7. Plant physiology- Taiz and Zeicer,  Sinawer  associatesinc. Publications
8. Introductory plant physiology- G. Ray Noggle and George. J. Fridge

Website address       www. botany.com
                      www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               BOT-367

III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VII
(BIOSYSTEMATICS & PLANT PHYSIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                     TOTAL CREDITS: 03

BIOSYSTEMATICS
UNIT-I:
CURRENT CONCEPTS IN TAXONOMY:  
a) Cytotaxonomy
b) Chemo-taxonomy,    
c) Serotaxonomy and Molecular Systematics (Outlines only)    
                                                                         
SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING FAMILIES:    
Asteraceae, Sapotaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Bignoniaceae and Lamiaceae
UNIT-II:
  SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING: 
 FAMILIES:   Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae 
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
UNIT-III:

a) RESPIRATION: Introduction, Mitochondria Structure, types of respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration,  glycol sis, Krebs’s cycle, Electron transport mechanism, Oxidative phosphorylation, R.Q, fermentation, Pentose Phosphate Pathway. 
  b) NITROGEN METABOLISM: Introduction, Nitrogen cycle,
     Biological nitrogen fixation- Symbiotic and A symbiotic methods 
     Mechanism of nitrogen fixation
      Protein synthesis- Transcription and Translation
 UNIT-IV:

  a) PHYTOHORMONES:  Biosynthesis, Bioassay and Physiological effects of Auxins,  Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ABA, Ethylene and   
                                                Brassinosteroides
b) SEEDTECHNOLOGY: Seed structure, dormancy –reasons and methods to overcome  Seed Dormancy,
     Factors affecting seed viability and seed testing Seed Banks
     Seed production and Seed certification               
     
  UNIT-V
 STRESS PHYSIOLOGY: Introduction, types of stress resistance- avoidance and tolerance
 a) Water stress      b) Salt stress        c) Temperature stress           d) Heavy metal stress

 Suggested readings:
1. Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, USA.
2. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Plant Physiology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Ecology and Utilization of Plants. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Davis, P.H. and V.H.Heywood. 1963. Principals of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver and   Boyd, London.
4. Heywood, V.H. and D.H. Moore (Eds). 1984. Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy.  Academic Press, London.
5. Salisbury, F.B. and C.W. Ross. 1992. Plant Physiology. 4th edn. (Indian Edition), Wordsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., USA.
6. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger.1998. Plant Physiology ( 2nd Ed.)  Sinauer Associates, Inc.,  Publishers. Massachusetts, USA.
7. Plant physiology- S.N. Pandey   & B.K. Sinha
Website address:         www. botany.com
                          www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          
                       
                                                                                  
  
                                                                         BOT-356-MB
III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-VI
(SKILL BASED-I:  MEDICINAL BOTANY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                                             TOTAL CREDITS: 3

UNIT-I: (05-Periods)
INTRODUCTION:          
a) Terminology, importance of medicinal plants,
b) Research institutes (CDRI, CSIR, CIMAP and NBRI)
c)  Medicinal gardens (TBRI, LLOYDS)
UNIT-II: (07-Periods)
 ROLE OF MEDICINAL BOTANY IN DIFFERENT MEDICAL SYSTEMS:     
a) Ayurveda- Introduction, basic concepts, functions, diagnosis and treatment
b) Homeopathy-Introduction, basic concepts, diagnosis and treatment
c) Allopathy: Introduction, early concept, modern concept, diagnosis and treatment
UNIT-III: (05-Periods)
PHARMACOGNOSY:                            
a)Introduction, branches of pharmacology, materia medica, crude drug,
b) Source and administration of drugs.
c) Identification tests for secondary plant metabolites in drugs - alkaloids, steroids 
    and phenolics.
UNIT-IV: (05-Periods)
a)CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:  
      Importance,  methods of cultivation, harvesting and drying methods.
b) ETHNOBOTANY:      
Introduction, importance and   Ethno botanical studies in Andhra Pradesh
UNIT-V: (04-Periods)
a)CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:   Objectives and conservation  methods ( In-situ and Ex-situ conservation)
b) ROLE OF HERBAL BASED DRUGS IN TREATING CERTAIN
   HUMAN AILMENTS IN INDIA: Diabetes, Jaundice and Skin diseases
Suggested readings:
1. Jain, S.K. and V.Mudgal. 1999. A Handbook of Ethnobotany. Bishen Singh Mahendra   
     Pal Singh, Dehradun.
1.               Rastogi, R.R. and B.N. Mehrotra. 1993. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants.Vol. I & Vol. II. CSIR, Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi.
Website address:      www. botany.com
                              www. wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          

              
                                                       
                                                                                      BOT: 356-MOB

III.B. Sc. SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-VI
(SKILL BASED-II:  MOLECULAR BIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                                      TOTAL CREDITS: 03
UNIT-I:( Periods-05)
 Nucleic acids
     a) Structure, types and  functions of DNA and  RNA
     b) Replication of DNA  in Prokaryotes
     c) Replication of DNA  in  Eukaryotes
UNIT-II: ( Periods-06)
      a)Transcription: Principles, transcriptional initiation in Prokaryotes and eukaryotes
      b)Translation: Genetic code,  Wobble hypothesis
      c) Protein synthesis- outlines only
UNIT-III: ( Periods-06)
Genetic Engineering
a)                Recombinant-DNA-technology: Introduction, different steps in r-DNA technology
b)               Vectors(Plasmids, Bacteriophages, Cosmids & Plasmids)
UNIT-IV:(Periods-05)
   Basic techniques in Genetic Engineering:
         a) Agarose Gel electrophoresis
         b) Nucleic acid Blotting techniques (Southern,  Northern & Western techniques)
UNIT-V:(Periods-04)
 Basic techniques in Genetic Engineering:
           a) PCR: Principle, Technique of PCR, Applications of PCR
           b) DNA finger printing
Suggested readings:
1. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal. 2004. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology,  
    Evolution and Ecology. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Channarayappa. 2007. Molecular Biotechnology-Principle and Practices. Universities, Press (India) Private Limited, Hyderabad.
3. Satyanarayana, U.2008. Biotechnology. Books and  Allied (P) Ltd.
4. Freifelder, D-Micribial Genetics, Narosa publishing house, New Delhi
5. Strickberger, M.W. Genetics. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi
Website address:         www. botany.com
                          www. wikipedia.org/wiki/botany                                                                                                      
                                                                         
                        BOT: 368-AM
III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VIII

(SUBJECT ELECTIVE- APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                                    TOTAL CREDITS: 03
  
UNIT-I: (06-Periods)
  a)  History of Microbiology
  b)  Microscopy: Compound Micros
cope, Electron Microscopy-TEM and SEM
        c)  Bacteria: Structure, reproduction and economic importance.

UNIT-II:  (06-Periods)
       a) Classification of Bacteria basing on nutritional requirements,
       b) Preparation of bacterial growth media- Natural, synthetic, semi synthetic and
           enrichment types.
       c) Physical conditions required for growth (Temp and PH)

UNIT-III:  (04-Periods)
         Disease: 
a)               Immunotherapy –Introduction, types of Immunotherapy,  significance
b)               Chemotherapy – Introduction, principles, treatment types , dosage, delivery and    
                                   Limitations.
      UNIT-IV:  (05-Periods)

a)               Antibiotics- Introduction, types of antibiotics, side effects and antibiotic resistance.
b)                Production of Penicillin: Introduction, structure, mechanism of action, adverse effects and uses 
UNIT-V:  (05-Periods)
        Microbial diseases of Humans caused by
a)                  Virus-   Hepatitis 
b)               Protozoa- Amoebiasis
c)               Bacteria- Tuberculosis

Suggested readings:

1. Mc kane, L. and K. Judy.1996. Microbiology- Essentials and  Applications. Mc Graw  
    Hill,  New York.
2. Pelczar, J. 2006. Microbiology.Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. New 
    Delhi.
3.Brown, Kevin. (2004). Penicillin Man: Alexander Fleming and the Antibiotics



                                                                                      BOT: 368-HC
III B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VIII
(SUBJECT ELECTIVE-HORTICULTURE)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26               TOTAL CREDITS: 03                                                      

UNIT-I: Introduction (06-Periods)
 a) Brief history of Horticulture
 b) Principles and methods of pest control
 c) Classification of Pesticides
  
UNIT-II: Propagation of Horticultural plants (06-Periods)
a)Sexual propagation: Seed production and certification process
b)                  Seed quality analysis, seed viability and longevity
 c) Vegetative propagation: Grafting and Layering
 d) Specialized underground structure: Plants propagated by separation
                                                               Plants propagated by division

UNIT-III: Plant Culture (04-Periods)
 a)  House plants: Plants grown in the windows, garden rooms and hanging baskets
 b) Terrarium culture: Introduction, Types of terrariums, tools, planting medium,      
                                     planting, care and maintenance

UNIT-IV: Indoor Plant Culture (04-Periods)
a) Bonsai:  Introduction, Principles, creating, training and repotting bonsai and Post Establishment care
b) Floriculture: Introduction, cultivation of chrysanthemum indica and Rosa indica and brief note on diseases and pest control methods.
c) Green house- History, types of green houses, construction, maintenance and importance.

UNIT-V: Outdoor Plant Culture (06-Periods)
a)Land scaping: Landscaping, Categories,  designing of Landscaping and   plants in  the land scapeing
b)                  Nursery production: Location of the nursery, nursery beds preparation, raising seed beds, pruning and transplantation
c) Micro irrigation: Introduction,  types of Micro irrigation methods and importance
               
Suggested readings:
1. Adams, C.R., K.M. Banford and M.P. Early. 1993. Principles of Horticulture. 
     Butterworth Heineman Ltd., London.
2. Agrawal, P.K.1993. Hand Book of Seed Technology. Dept. of Agriculture and 
   Cooperation. National Seed Corporation Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Gorer, R. 1978. The Growth of Gardens. Feber and Faber Ltd., London.
4. Rao, K.M.1991. A Text Book of Horticulture. McMillan India Ltd, New Delhi.
5. George Acquaah, Langston University, Pearson education Asia.




                                                                                    


BOTANY NEW SYLLABUS  2013-14
                                                                       w.e.f.2013-14
(I B.Sc SEMESTER-I & ii)

I B.Sc., semester-i: botany paper-I

(PLANT DIVERSITY-I microbiology, ALGAE, FUNGI & plant pathology)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                      TOTAL CREDITS: 03

UNIT-I: (12-Periods)
                                                                                                    
a) Bacteria: Introduction, Structure, Nutrition, Reproduction and Economic importance.
b) Viruses     : Structure, Replication and Transmission of viruses

UNIT-ii: (15-Periods)
 a) General characters of Algae
 b) Thallus organization in Algae
 c) Economic importance of Algae (Special focus on Biofertilizers)
 d) Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera
                       
Chlorophyceae-    Oedogonium
Phaeophyceae-     Ectocarpus
Rhodophyceae-    Polysiphonia
Cyanophyceae-   General account only                                                                 

UNIT-iii: (13-Periods)
 a) General characters of Fungi
 b) Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera
     (Developmental stages are not included)

Mastigomycotina:   Albugo
Zygomycotina:        Mucor
Ascomycotina:       Penicillium
Basidiomycotina:  Puccinia
Deuteromycotina- Collectotrichum

c) Lichens-      General account only.

UNIT-iv: (06-Periods)

a)  Concept of plant disease- Introduction, terminology
b) Symptoms of plant diseases caused by Bacteria, Fungi and Viruses (Necrosis, Spot, 
      Blights, Blast, Scorch, Canker, Damping off, Anthracnose, Die-back, Ring spots, Rot, Wilt, Scab,    
      Rust, Smut, mildew, Galls, Warts, Leaf curls, Witches broom and  Chlorosis).

UNIT-V: (06-Periods)

a) Diseases of plants caused by
Fungi      : Red rot of sugar cane
Bacteria:   Citrus canker
Virus       : Bhendi vein clearing

 b) Principles of plant disease control
           Prevention- Quarantine, Eradication
           Treatment- Physical methods, Chemical methods
           Immunization- Disease resistance

Suggested readings:

1. Pandey, B.P. 2001.College Botany. Vol. I.Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria , Viruses, Plant    
    Pathology, Industrial Microbiology and  Bryophyata. S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Alexopolous, J.and W.M. Charles. 1988. Introduction to Mycology. Wiley Eastern, New   Delhi.
3. Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S.2006. A Textbook of  plant  Pathology. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd.,  
    New Delhi.
4. Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S.2006. A  Textbook  of Algae. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
5.  Sharma, O.P.1992. Text Book  of  Thallophyta. McGraw Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi.
6.  Steiner, R.Y Adel berg, 5th edition, Prentice hall of India, New Delhi
7. Pelzer, M.J. Chan, E.C.S and Krieg, 5th edition, Mc Graw Hill publishing Co, ltd, New Delhi

Website address:         www. botany.com
                                     www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          

                                                                                   

                                                                                                     BOT-122

  I. B.Sc., SEMESTER-II: BOTANY PAPER-II
               
(PLANT DIVERSITY-II BRYOPHYTA, PTERIDOPHYTA, GYMNOSPERMS AND PALAEOBOTANY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                          TOTAL CREDITS:03

UNIT-I:  (11-Peroids)

  a. General characters of Bryophyta
  b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera (Developmental 
      stages not included)
  Hepaticopsida        :  Marchantia
 Anthocerotopsida   :  Anthoceros
 Bryopsida               :  Polytrichum

UNIT-II: (13-Periods)

 a. General   characters of Pteridophyta                                   
 b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following   genera (Developmental  
     stages not included)
Lycopsida       : Lycopodium
Sphenopsida :  Equisetum
Pteropsida:      Marsilea

UNIT-III :( 14-Periods)

a. General characters of Gymnosperms
b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera (Developmental 
   stages are not included )
        Coniferopsida:   Pinus
        Gnetopsida      : Gnetum

UNIT-IV:  (08-Periods)
a. Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes 
b. Stelar Evolution in Pteridophytes
c. General characters of Rhynia and Bennettitales

UNIT-V:  (06-Periods)
a. Types of Fossils: petrifications, Compressions, Impressions, Molds and Casts
b. Process of Fossilization
c. Geological time scale (Brief account

Suggested Readings:

1. Sporne, K.R.1965. Morphology of Gymnosperms. Hutchison Co., Ltd., London.
2. Pandey, B.P. 2001. College Botany, Vol. I: Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria, Viruses, Plant
   Pathology, Industrial Microbiology  and Bryophyta. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Pandey, B.P.2006. College Botany, Vol. II: Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Paleobotany.
   S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Vashitha , P.C., A.K. Sinha and Anil kumar. 2006. Botany –Pteridophyta (Vascular  Cryptogams)
    S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.    
5. H. N. Srivastava – Fundamental of Pteridophyta, Pradeep publications, Jalandar      
6. Parihar- Text book of Bryophyta 

Website address:         www. botany.com
                                      www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany            




BOTANY NEW SYLLABUS  2013-14

(II B.Sc SEMESTER-III & IV)
              
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                        BOT-233
                 II B.Sc., SEMESTER-III: BOTANY PAPER-III
                                                                       
(PLANT REPRODUCTION AND PLANT DEVELOPMENT)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                           TOTAL CREDITS: 03

PLANT REPRODUCTION:
UNIT-I:(10-Periods)
a)   Structure of  mature anther, pollen grain and development of male gametophyte
b) Types of mega sporangia (ovules) - Orthrotropous, Anatropous, Hemi anatropous, Campylotropous, Amphitropous and Circinotropous ovules.
c) Development of female gametophyte
d) Types of embryo sacs (Monosporic, Bisporic and Tetrasporic) 
e) Process of double fertilization, Triple fusion,
f)  Endosperm - Nuclear, Helobial and Cellular endosperm.                                              

UNIT-II: (14- Periods)
a) Embryogeny – Development of dicot and  monocot embryo (with one example)
b) Polyembryony; Introduction, Process of Polyembryony and importance
c) Palynology : Pollen grain structure, sporoderm stratification, apertures, NPC system
 Morphology of pollen grains-Tribulus, Ocimum and Maize
                        Applications of Palynology

 PLANT DEVELOPMENT:
UNIT-III: (10- Periods)
a)  Meristems- Introduction, classification.
b) Theories of  Root apical Meristems (RAM), Shoot apical Meristems (SAM)
 and   Root-Stem transition.

UNIT-IV: (08- Periods)
a)      Epidermal tissue system- Epidermis, Stomata, Epidermal outgrowths
b)      Ground and Vascular tissue systems- Cortex, Endodermis, Pericycle and Medulla
c)      Vascular tissue system- Xylem, Phloem and Types of vascular bundles.
d)      Anatomy of Dicot and Monocot Root.
e)      Anatomy of  primary Dicot and Monocot  Stem
f)       Anatomy of Dicot and Monocot Leaf.

UNIT-V;  (10-Periods)

a) Normal secondary growth in dicot stem
b) Anomalous secondary growth in Boerhaavia and Dracaena
c) Wood Anatomy;   Texture of wood,
 Identification of wood,
 Seasoning and  preservation of  wood,
Systematic position and  Anatomical aspects of wood – teakwood and  
 red sanders 

Suggested Readings:

1.       Johri, B.M. 1984. Embryology of Angiosperms. Springer-Verleg, Berlin.
2.       Kapil, R.P.1986. Pollination Biology. Inter India Publishers, New Delhi.
3.       Bhojwani, S.S. and S.P.Bhatnagar. 2000. The Embryology of Angiosperms (4th Ed.), Vikas
              Publishing House, Delhi.
4.       Esau, K. 1971.Anatomy of Seed Plants. John Wiley and Son,  USA.
5.       Plant Anatomy by Elizabeth Cutler
6.       Plant Anatomy by Falm

Website address:         www. botany.com
                             www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany           


     

                                                                                                                     BOT-244              
                                                                                
                             II B.Sc., SEMESTER-IV: BOTANY PAPER-IV
                                                                      
               (ECOLOGY, CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                     TOTAL CREDITS: 03

UNIT -I:  (10-Periods)           

a) Ecological Factors: Climatic (Light, Temperature), Edaphic & Biotic (Brief account)
b)  Plant succession: Process and theories of Succession,
     Types of Succession- Hydrosere and Xerosere,
c) Population Ecology: Natural Vegetation of India
d) Biodiversity: Introduction, Endangered, Endemic, Key stone Species and Hotspots (Brief account).         
UNIT-II: 8-periods)
a) Ultra Structure of the plant cell and cell organelles (cell wall, plasma membrane, golgi complex,    
endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, ribosomes and nucleus)
b) Chromosome:  Structure, types of chromosomes, organization of chromosome ( Multistranded view, folded fibril model, Nucleosome model)
c) Cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis.
UNIT-III:  (12-Periods)
a) Mendel’s laws of inheritance.
b) Linkage- introduction, Kinds of Linkage and significance.
c)  Crossing over- Introduction, mechanism, theories and types of crossing over.
d) Mutations – Introduction, types of mutations, physical and chemical mutagens.
e) Polyploidy- Introduction, Autopolyploids and Allopolyploids.
d) Gene: Concept, Structure and functions.
UNIT-IV:  (10-Periods)
a) Plant Tissue Culture: Introduction, components of media, types of media,   preparation and                                               sterilization of culture media.
b) Micro propagation   : Somatic embryogenesis, embryo culture and its                                                                                              applications, applications of micro propagation.  
UNIT –V: (10-Periods)                      
                                                                                               
a)      Somatic hybridization: Isolation of protoplasts, somatic hybridization and its  
                                      applications.                                           
  b) Transgenic plants:       Genetically modified crops (Bt Cotton)

Suggested Readings:

1. Harris, N. and K.J. Oparka. 1994. Plant Cell Biology: A Practical Approach. IRL Press at
   University Press, Oxford. UK.
2. Kormondye, E. 1989. Concepts of Ecology (3rd Ed.) Printice Hall of India, New Delhi
3. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Diversity of Microbes, Croptogams, Cell
   Biology a nd Genetics. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Sharma, P.D.1989. Elements  of  Ecology. Rastogi Publications, Meerut.
5. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal. 2004. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution                                                                                                        
                                                                                                  
Website address:       www. botany.com
                                    www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          




                                                                                                                        GE: 240-HM
                            II B.Sc., SEMESTER-III & IV: BOTANY

                                    GENERAL ELECTIVE (HERBAL MEDICINE)
TOTAL PERIODS: 51                                                                      TOTAL CREDITS: 02

UNIT-I: (15-Periods)
1. Role of plants in medicine: Introduction to Herbal medicine, Brief account of 
                                                 Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Allopathy
2. Crude Drugs: Chemical, Pharmacological classification, Sources of crude Drugs

UNIT-II:(08-Periods)
Pharmacognosy: Definition, Pharmacognosy of the following plants
               a. Drugs obtained from roots:                        Hemidesmus indicus
                                                                                      Withania somnifera
               b. Drugs obtained from underground stems: Curcuma longa
                                                                                     Zingiber officinale

UNIT-III: (08-Periods)
                                                                                     
               c. Drugs obtained from bark:                        Cinchona officinalis
                                                                                     Terminalia arjuna
                                                                       
               d. Drugs obtained from stem and wood:      Santalum album
                                                                                     Acacia catechu
UNIT-IV: (08-Periods)
               
               e. Drugs obtained from leaves:                     Adhotoda vasica
                                                                                     Aloe vera

               f. Drugs obtained from flowers:                 Artemisia vulgaris
                                                                                   Leonotis neptiifoli
 UNIT-V: (12-Periods)
                                                        
                g. Drugs obtained from Fruits:                  Coriandrum sativum
                                                                                   Foeniculum vulgare
                h. Drugs obtained from Seeds:                  Tribulus terrestris
                                                                                   Trigonella foenum-graceum
                i. Drugs obtained from all parts of the plant Body Catharanthus roseus
                                                                                           Gymnema sylvestre

Note: Botanical name, Family, Vernacular name, Botanical description, important chemical constituents and Practical applications only
                                          
Suggested readings:

1. Jain, S.K. and V.Mudgal. 1999. A Handbook of Ethno botany. Bishen Singh Mahendra   
     Pal Singh, Dehradun.
2. Rastogi, R.R. and B.N. Melrotra. 1993. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol.
    I & Vol. II. CSIR, Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi




BOTANY NEW SYLLABUS  2013-
   (III B.Sc SEMESTER-V&  BOT-355
                              III B.Sc. SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-V

                                      (BIOSYSTEMATICS & PLANT PHYSIOLOGY)
       
         TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                              TOTAL CREDITS: 03                                                 
BIOSYSTEMATICS:

UNIT-I:

a) INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY 
                    Introduction, Objectives and functions of taxonomy,
                    Units and Principles of classification.
b) NOMENCLATURE:
                  Binomial nomenclature,
                 Generic and specific epithet, author’s citation,
                  ICBN - principles and rules,
                 Taxonomic rank, type concept and principle of priority
UNIT-II:

  CLASSIFICATION OF ANGIOSPERMS:
      a)  Bentham and Hooker’s system of classification
      b) Takhtajan system of classification 
                                                                                               
UNIT-III:

 SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING 
      FAMILIES: 
      Annonaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Apiaceae

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

UNIT-IV:

 WATER RELATIONS
a) Physical properties of water, diffusion, imbibition, osmosis, concept of water
     potential and Plasmolysis.

   ASCENT OF SAP- Introduction and Mechanism of Ascent of sap

   TRANSPIRATION- Introduction, types of transpiration, structure of stomata, mechanism of  
    stomatal opening and closing, and Factors affecting transpiration.

 b)  ENZYMES: Introduction, structure and properties of enzymes,
     Nomenclature and classification of enzymes
     Enzymatic action – Lock and key theory and Induced fit theory.
        
UNIT-V

a) PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Introduction, chloroplast structure, photosynthetic pigments, Hill reaction, Emerson enhancement effect, PSI and PSII, electron transport and proton transport,     Photophosphorylation, Carbon reduction pa
th ways- C3, C4, CAM. Photorespiration, factors affecting photosynthesis.

b) Translocation of organic solutes- source and sink relationship, mechanism of
translocation.
    
Suggested readings:

1. Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to  Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New      
    York, USA.
2. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Plant Physiology, Biochemistry,
    Biotechnology, Ecology  and Utilization of Plants. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New  
     Delhi.
3. Davis, P.H. and V.H. Heywood. 1963. Principals of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver and 
    Boyd, London.
4. Heywood, V.H. and D.H. Moore (Eds). 1984. Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy.
5. Fundamentals of plant physiology-Dr. V.K. Jain- S. Chand publications
6. Plant physiology- S. Mukherji and A.K. Ghosh- New central book agency
7. Plant physiology- Taiz and Zeicer,  Sinawer  associatesinc. Publications
8. Introductory plant physiology- G. Ray Noggle and George. J. Fridge

Website address:      www. botany.com
                                   www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          




                                                                                                          BOT-367

                    III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VII


                                  (BIOSYSTEMATICS & PLANT PHYSIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                     TOTAL CREDITS: 03

BIOSYSTEMATICS
UNIT-I:
CURRENT CONCEPTS IN TAXONOMY 
a)Cytotaxonomy
b) Chemo-taxonomy,    
c) Serotaxonomy and Molecular Systematics (Outlines only)     
                                                                          
SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING FAMILIES:     
Asteraceae, Sapotaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Bignoniaceae and Lamiaceae
UNIT-II:

  SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING: 
 FAMILIES:   Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae 
             
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
UNIT-III:

a) RESPIRATION: Introduction,  Mitochondria Structure, types of respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic
                                respiration,  glycolysis, Krebs’s cycle, Electron transport mechanism,   
                                Oxidative phosphorylation, R.Q, fermentation, Pentose Phosphate Pathway. 
      
        b) NITROGEN METABOLISM: Introduction, Nitrogen cycle,
                                                                 Biological nitrogen fixation- Symbiotic and A symbiotic methods  
                                                                 Mechanism of nitrogen fixation
                                                                 Protein synthesis- Transcription and Translation
 UNIT-IV:

  a) PHYTO HORMONES:  Biosynthesis, Bioassay and Physiological effects of Auxins,     
                                               Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ABA, Ethylene and   
                                                Brassinosteroides
b) SEED TECHNOLOGY: Seed structure, dormancy –reasons and methods for Seed   
                                          Dormancy,
                                                      Factors affecting seed viability and seed testing
                                                      Seed Banks
                                                      Seed production and Seed certification               
      UNIT-V

        STRESS PHYSIOLOGY: Introduction, types of stress resistance- avoidance and tolerance
         a) Water stress      b) Salt stress        c) Temperature stress           d) Heavy metal stress

   Suggested readings:   

1. Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New     
    York, USA.
2. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Plant Physiology, Biochemistry,
    Biotechnology, Ecology and Utilization of Plants. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New  
     Delhi.
3. Davis, P.H. and V.H.Heywood. 1963. Principals of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver and 
    Boyd, London.
4. Heywood, V.H. and D.H. Moore (Eds). 1984. Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy.
    Academic Press, London.
5. Salisbury, F.B. and C.W. Ross. 1992. Plant Physiology. 4th edn. (Indian Edition),
    Wordsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., USA.
6. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger.1998. Plant Physiology ( 2nd Ed.)  Sinauer Associates, Inc., 
    Publishers. Massachusetts, USA.
7.Plant physiology- S.N. Pandey   & B.K. Sinha

Website address:         www. botany.com
                                   www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          

                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                            BOT-356-MB                  
                     III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-V
                                    (SKILL BASED-I:  MEDICINAL BOTANY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                                         TOTAL CREDITS: 3

UNIT-I: (05-Periods)
INTRODUCTION:           
a) Terminology, importance of medicinal plants,
b) Preparation and preservation of Herbaria
c) Research institutes (CDRI, CSIR, CIMAP and NBRI)
d)  Medicinal gardens (TBRI, LLOYDS, BSI and garden of medicinal plants-Goa)
UNIT-II: (07-Periods)
 ROLE OF MEDICINAL BOTANY IN DIFFERENT MEDICAL SYSTEMS:     
a) Ayurveda- Introduction, basic concepts, functions, diagnosis and treatment
b) Homeopathy-Introduction, basic concepts, diagnosis and treatment
c) Allopathy: Introduction, early concept, modern concept, diagnosis and treatment
UNIT-III: (05-Periods)
PHARMACOGNOSY:                            
a)Introduction, branches of pharmacology, materia medica, crude drug,
b) Source and administration of drugs.
c) Identification tests for secondary plant metabolites in drugs - alkaloids, steroids  
    and phenolics.
UNIT-IV: (05-Periods)
a)CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:  
      Importance,  methods of cultivation, harvesting and drying methods.
b) ETHNOBOTANY:       
Introduction, importance and   Ethno botanical studies in Andhra Pradesh
UNIT-V: (04-Periods)
a)CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:   Objectives and conservation  
    methods ( In-situ and Ex-situ conservation)
b) ROLE OF HERBAL BASED DRUGS IN TREATING CERTAIN
   HUMAN AILMENTS IN INDIA: Diabetes, Jaundice and Skin diseases

Suggested readings:

1. Jain, S.K. and V.Mudgal. 1999. A Handbook of Ethnobotany. Bishen Singh Mahendra   
     Pal Singh, Dehradun.
1.      Rastogi, R.R. and B.N. Mehrotra. 1993. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants.Vol. I & Vol. II. CSIR, Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi.

Website address:      www. botany.com
                                   www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          

              
                                                 
                                                                                                           BOT: 356-MOB
                                      III.B. Sc. SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-VI

                                    (SKILL BASED-II:  MOLECULAR BIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                             TOTAL CREDITS: 03
UNIT-I:( Periods-05)
 Nucleic acids
     a) Structure, types and  functions of DNA and  RNA
     b) Replication of DNA  in Prokaryotes
     c) Replication of DNA  in  Eukaryotes
UNIT-II: ( Periods-06)
      a)Transcription: Principles, transcriptional initiation in Prokaryotes and eukaryotes
      b)Translation: Genetic code,  Wobble hypothesis
      c) Protein synthesis- outlines only
UNIT-III: ( Periods-06)
Genetic Engineering
a)       Recombinant-DNA-technology: Introduction, different steps in r-DNA technology
b)      Vectors(Plasmids, Bacteriophages, Cosmids & Plasmids)
UNIT-IV:(Periods-05)
   Basic techniques in Genetic Engineering:
         a) Agarose Gel electrophoresis
         b) Nucleic acid Blotting techniques (Southern,  Northern & Western techniques)
UNIT-V:(Periods-04)
 Basic techniques in Genetic Engineering:
           a) PCR: Principle, Technique of PCR, Applications of PCR
           b) DNA finger printing

Suggested readings:

1. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal. 2004. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology,  
    Evolution and Ecology. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Channarayappa. 2007. Molecular Biotechnology-Principle and Practices. Universities, Press (India) Private Limited, Hyderabad.
3. Satyanarayana, U.2008. Biotechnology. Books and  Allied (P) Ltd.
4. Freifelder, D-Micribial Genetics, Narosa publishing house, New Delhi
5. Strickberger, M.W. Genetics. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi

Website address:         www. botany.com
                                   www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          



                                                                                                       BOT: 368-AM

                                    III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VIII

(SUBJECT ELECTIVE- APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                                    TOTAL CREDITS: 03
                                                              
UNIT-I: (06-Periods)
  a)  History of Microbiology
  b)  Microscopy: Compound Microscope, Electron Microscopy-TEM and SEM
        c)  Bacteria: Structure, reproduction and economic importance.

UNIT-II:  (06-Periods)
       a) Classification of Bacteria basing on nutritional requirements,
       b) Preparation of bacterial growth media- Natural, synthetic, semi synthetic and
           enrichment types.
       c) Physical conditions required for growth (Temp and PH)

UNIT-III:  (04-Periods)
         Disease:  
a)      Immunotherapy –Introduction, types of Immunotherapy,  significance
b)     Chemotherapy – Introduction, principles, treatment types , dosage, delivery and    
                                   Limitations.
      UNIT-IV:  (05-Periods)

a)      Antibiotics- Introduction, types of antibiotics, side effects and antibiotic resistance.
b)      Production of Penicillin: Introduction, structure, mechanism of action, adverse effects and uses 
UNIT-V:  (05-Periods)
        Microbial diseases of Humans caused by
a)      Virus-   Hepatitis      
b)     Protozoa- Amoebiasis
c)      Bacteria- Tuberculosis

Suggested readings:

1. Mc kane, L. and K. Judy.1996. Microbiology- Essentials and  Applications. Mc Graw  
    Hill,  New York.
2. Pelczar, J. 2006. Microbiology.Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. New 
    Delhi.
3.Brown, Kevin. (2004). Penicillin Man: Alexander Fleming and the Antibiotics


                                                                                      BOT: 368-HC

                                         III B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VIII
(SUBJECT ELECTIVE-HORTICULTURE)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                  TOTAL CREDITS: 03

UNIT-I: Introduction (06-Periods)
 a) Brief history of Horticulture
 b) Protection of Horticultural plants from Weeds, Animal pests and diseases                                                                   
 c) Principles and methods of pest control
 d) Classification of Pesticides
                                                                                           
UNIT-II: Propagation of Horticultural plants (06-Periods)
a)      Sexual propagation: Seed production and certification process
b)      Seed quality analysis, seed viability and longevity
 c) Vegetative propagation: Grafting and Layering
 d) Specialized underground structure: Plants propagated by separation
                                                               Plants propagated by division

UNIT-III: Plant Culture (04-Periods)
 a)  House plants: Plants grown in the windows, garden rooms and hanging baskets
 b) Terrarium culture: Introduction, Types of terrariums, tools, planting medium,       
                                     planting, care and maintenance

UNIT-IV: Indoor Plant Culture (04-Periods)
a) Bonsai:  Introduction, Principles, creating, training and repotting bonsai and
              Post Establishment care
b) Floriculture: Introduction, cultivation of chrysanthemum and Rosa indica.
c) Green house- History, types of green houses, construction, maintenance and importance.

UNIT-V: Outdoor Plant Culture (06-Periods)
a)      Land scaping: Landscaping, Categories,  designing of Landscaping and   
                               plants in  the land scapeing
b)      Nursery production: Location of the nursery, nursery beds preparation, raising seed beds, pruning and transplantation
c)       Micro irrigation: Introduction,  types of Micro irrigation methods and importance
                
Suggested readings:
1. Adams, C.R., K.M. Banford and M.P. Early. 1993. Principles of Horticulture. 
     Butterworth Heineman Ltd., London. 
          

  



                       QUESTION PAPER PATTERN
           
                  ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS): VIJAYAWADA – 8

                                       I.B.Sc. SEMESTER –I BOTANY PAPER – I
                
                                                       PLANT DIVERSITY – I

                          (MICROBIOLOGY, ALGAE, FUNGI & PLANT PATHOLOGY)


                                                                 Part – A

Very short answer Questions (one or two sentences answer) covering two questions from each unit. Each question carries two marks as follows.
                                                                                                                       
 Q.I                                                        10X2 = 20M

 a, b  ---------------------------------- From unit - I
 c, d  ---------------------------------- From unit - I
 e, f  -----------------------------------From unit - III
 g, h  ---------------------------------- From unit - IV
 i, j   ---------------------------------- From unit – V


                                                             Part – B
  Five essay questions covering one question from each unit with internal choice.
   
  Q II   :  From Unit – I                                                    1X16 = 16M
  Q III:   From Unit – II                                                   1X16 = 16M
 Q IV:   From Unit – III                                                  1X16 = 16M
  Q V:    From Unit – IV                                                 1X16 =16M
  Q VI:   From Unit – V                                                  1X16 =16M

 



************************




                ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS) VIJAYAWADA – 8

                                       I.B.Sc. SEMESTER –I BOTANY PAPER – I

                                                   PLANT DIVERSITY – I

              (MICROBIOLOGY, ALGAE, FUNGI & PLANT PATHOLOGY)
                                      
                                      MODEL QUESTION  PAPER
Time: 3 hrs                                                                         Max  Marks : 100

Part – A

I.   Answer all the questions in the same sequential order in which they appear 
                                                                                                                        10X 2 = 20M

 a)  What is Transduction? Who discovered it.

 b) Define: 1. Phytophages and Mycophages

 c) What is alternation of generation? Give one example of alga showing isomorphic
    alternation of generation.

 d)Name the nitrogen fixing algae. Which class do they belong to?

e)  What is wonder drug? Name the scientist who discovered it.

f)  Name the disease caused by Albugo? Write the name of the host plant.

g)  What is root rot? Name one pathogen.

h) What is blast? Mention the casual organism.

i)  What is Bhendi vein clearing? Mention the casual organism.

j)  What are antagonists? Give one example.


Part – B

II. Answer any one set of the following                     1X16 = 16M


a)      Economic importance of Bacteria
OR

     a)  Bacteriophage.  – 6M
     b)  Replication of Viruses - 10M

  III. Answer any one set of the following                1X16 = 16 M

      a)  Thallus organization in Algae
OR

a)      Cystocarp –               --8M
b)      Dwarf male  -             -8M

IV. Answer any one set of the following                 1X16 = 16 M

       a)  Asexual reproduction in Albugo- 10M
       b)  Lichen thallus T.S                      - 6M

OR

       a)  Puccinia life cycle on Wheat plant   - 16 M

V.   Answer any one set of the following                   1X16 = 16 M

a)   Write the casual organism and symptoms of any four bacterial diseases -16M

                                                OR
      a)   Write the casual organism and symptoms of any four fungal diseases -8M
      b)   Any four control measures of plant diseases   - 4M
      c)   Symptoms of  rust disease -                             - 4M


VI.   Answer any one set of the following                  1X16 = 16 M

a)   Explain the life cycle of citrus canker -168M


OR
      a)   Red rot of sugarcane - 5M
      b)   Necrosis-5
      c)  Damping off-6                             


-----------------------



480 comments:

  1. Naveen B
    AB-39
    naveenhymavathi@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  2. SANDEEP B
    AB-25
    sonusandeep1994@gmail.com

    Thank you for this helpful site ma'm....

    ReplyDelete
  3. p.daniel
    ab.40
    pandi.daniel7@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  4. Semester - V

    Botany Paper - V

    Title:Cell Biology,Genetics and Plant Breeding

    Short Question and Answers for Semester End Exam

    Unit - I - Cell Biology

    1.What are the differences between Prokaryotic Cell and Eukaryotic Cell?
    Ans). Prokaryotic Cell:
    i.Nucleus is undefined and the nuclear material is present all over the cell.
    ii.Single circular chromosome present.
    iii.Plasmid is present which contains extra chromosomal genes which is used in R-DNA technology.
    iv.Membrane bound organelles are absent.
    v.Genetic material lacks histone proteins.

    Eukaryotic Cell:
    i.Nucleus is well defined and the nuclear material is bound by a nuclear membrane.
    ii.Chromosomal number varies and they are of linear type.
    iii.Plasmid is absent.
    iv.Membrane bound organelles like mitochondria, chloroplast and etc are present.
    v.Genetic material is associated with histone proteins.

    2.What are Mesosomes?Mention it's role?
    Ans).Mesosomes are the infoldings of the plasma membrane in a prokaryotic cell into the cytoplasm.

    Mesosomes main function is respiration in prokaryotic cells.It also helps in the binary fisson and due to the more surface area present near it, many metabolic processes like enzymatic reactions undergo here.

    3.What is a Plasmid? Mention it's role in R-DNA technology.
    Ans). Plasmid is the extra chromosomal DNA present in a prokaryotic cell which can replicate independently.They are small circular double stranded DNA molecules in bacteria.

    The sexual reproduction in bacteria i.e., Conjugation takes place by the transfer of plasmid from a donor cell having a plasmid to a recipient cell lacking a plasmid.

    Plasmids play a major role in genetic recombinations in R-DNA technology which are of great use in science, agriculture,medicine and genetics.The desired genes are isolated from the organisms and by the help of vectors(plasmids) genetic recombinations are done in laboratory.

    4.Distinguish between Euchromatin and Heterochromatin.
    Ans). Euchromatin: The portion in the chromosome which takes less stain and active genes are present and they take part in transcription due to their loose packing.

    Heterochromatin:The portion in the chromosome which takes up staining darkly and inactive genes are present.This is due to methylation of the chromatin material and high coiling.

    5.What are semi-autonomous cell organelles?Why are they called so?
    Ans).The mitochondria and chloroplast are known as the semi-autonomous cell organelles in a plant cell.

    They are called as semi-autonomous cell organelles due to their ability to undergo autocatalysis and heterocatalysis.
    Autocatalysis is the ability to replicate their own genetic material and heterocatalysis is the synthesis of proteins by transcription and translation.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. DEAR REVANTH, GOOD PRESENTATION. USE TWO DIFFERENT COLOURS FOR PRESENTATION. - 1. QUESTIONS 2. ANSWERS

      Delete
  5. Unit - II - Genetic Material

    1. Define Nucleoside and Nucleotide.
    Ans).Nucleoside:It consists of a sugar molecule attached to a nitogen base.

    Nucleotide:It consists of a sugar molecule attached to a nitrogen base and a phosphate group.

    2.Give any four differences between DNA and RNA.
    Ans). DNA:
    i.It is a double stranded molecule acting as univeral genetic material.
    ii.DNA contains deoxy ribose sugar molecule in it's structure.
    iii.Udergoes autocatalysis and heterocatalysis.
    iv.Contains Thymine as one of the nitogen base.

    RNA:
    i.It is a single stranded molecule which act as a genetic material in the absence of DNA molecule.
    ii.RNA contains ribose sugar in it's structure.
    iii.Undergoes translation to synthesise protein as a result of transcription by DNA.
    iv.Contains Uracil instead of Thymine as nitrogen base.

    3.Give details about Watson and Crick.
    Ans). Watson and Crick proposed the double helical structure of DNA molecule for which they received a Noble Prize in 1962 under Medicine.

    4.Semi-conservative mode of DNA replication?
    Ans).Semi-conservative mode of DNA replication was proposed by Watson and Crick in 1953.

    They stated that each starnd in the parent DNA act as a template strand and the daughter strands are newly synthesised.The new daughter DNA contain one parental DNA strand and one newly synthesised strand.

    5.Give the types of RNA and their functions.
    Ans).There are three types of RNA.They are i.m-RNA-It is called messenger-RNA. It is transcribed from the DNA and carries the information for the protein synthesis.
    ii.t-RNA-It is called transfer-RNA. It has stem loop structure. It carries amino acids to the site of protein synthesis and has anti-codon site which would be complementary to the mRNA sequence.
    iii.r-RNA- It is called ribosomal-RNA. It is the site for the synthesis of proteins. It will help in attachment of the mRNA with the ribosomes.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Unit - III - Mendelian Inheritance

    1. Define law of Dominance.
    Ans).Mendel's law stating that when two alleles of an inherited pair is heterozygous, then, the allele that is expressed is dominant whereas the allele that is not expressed is recessive. The expression of the dominant allele suppressing the recessive allele is termed as Law of Dominance.

    2.Define Test Cross and Back Cross.
    Ans).Test Cross:The cross made between the F1 hybrid with it's recessive parent.It is done to know the homozygosity of the F1 hybrid.

    Back Cross:The cross made between the F1 hybrid with any one of the parents.It is done in order to achieve offspring with a genetic identity which is closer to that of the parent.

    3.Define Linkage and Crossing Over.
    Ans).Linkage:It is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction.

    Crossing Over:It is the process where 2 homologous chromosome sister chromatids pair up with each other and exchange different segments of genetic material to form 2 recombinant chromosome sister chromatids.

    4.Define the second law of Mendelian Inheritance.
    Ans).The second law of Mendelian Inheritance is The Law of Independant Assortment of Gametes which states that "When two or more characteristics are inherited, individual hereditary factors assort independently during gamete production, giving different traits an equal opportunity of occurring together."

    5.Define Complete Linkage and Incomplete Linkage.
    Ans).Complete Linkage: It is defined as the state in which two loci are so close together that alleles of these loci are virtually never separated by crossing over. The closer the physical location of two genes on the DNA, the less likely they are to be separated by a crossing-over event.

    Incomplete Linkage:When the genes were loosly linked on a chromosome and show higher percentage of recombination. In such condition non parental type of gametes are formed.

    Incomplete linkage produces new combinations of the genes in the progeny due to the formation of chiasma or crossing over in between the linked genes present on homologous chromosomes.

    ReplyDelete
  7. Unit - IV - Plant Breeding

    1.What is Plant Breeding? Give any two objectives.
    Ans). Plant breeding is the process by which humans change the characteristics of plants over time to make them better crops and more nourishing food. In its most simple form, breeding consists of selecting the best plants in a given field, growing them to full seed and then using that seed to grow further generations.

    Objectives:The main objectives are
    i.High Yielding
    ii.Disease Resistance

    Plant Breeding aims to improve the characteristics of plant so that they become more desirable agronomically and economically. Thus, the chief objective of plant breeding is to develop such improved varieties of crop plants that will be commercially successful.

    2.Define Acclimatization.
    Ans). Acclimatization is the phenomenom of an intoduced plant to adapt or adjust to the new environmental conditions.

    3.Define Introduction and give any two merits.
    Ans). Introduction is the earliest of the methods followed in plant breeding. Established plants of one area are taken to the newer area for the use of mankind.

    Merits:
    i.It is a very quick and economical method of crop improvement.
    ii.It may provide an entirely a new crop species. Maize,Potato,tomato are the best examples for introduction.

    4.Define Mass, Pureline and Clonal Selection.
    Ans). Mass Selection: Selection of a number of phenotypically superior plants heads or seeds from the field population, harvesting and bulking their produce together for sowing the next year’s crop and repeating this process till desired characters are achieved.Mass selection is based on phenotype (external characters).It cannot bring any new change in the genotype. It can be practiced in both self-pollinated and cross-pollinated crops.

    Pureline Selection: The process of isolating a desirable homozygous individual from the mixed population and selfing the same without contamination to release as a new variety.It is commonly used to improve the self- pollinated crops.

    Clonal Selection:A variety that is propagated vegetative from a single plant is called clone.Selection of desirable clones from the mixed population of vegetative propagated crops is known as clonal selection.

    4.Define Hybridization and mention any two objectives.
    Ans).Individual produced as a result of cross between two genetically different parents is known as hybrid. The natural or artificial process that results in the formation of hybrid is known as hybridization.

    Objectives:
    i. To artificially create a variable population for the selection of types with desired combination of characters.
    ii.To create high yielding, disease resistant, stress resistant, commercially successful crops.

    6.Define emasculation, bagging and tagging.
    Ans). Emasculation: The removal or inactivation of male reproductive organs from the selected female parent.

    Bagging: The process of covering the selected female flower after artificially pollinating it with the desired pollens.

    Tagging: The process of noting down the details related to parents, time of maturation, pollination, place and other details on a card and tying it to the bagged female flower for further reference.

    ReplyDelete
  8. Unit - V - Breeding, Crop Improvement and Biotechnology

    1.Expand RFLP and mention it's objectives.
    Ans).RFLP-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Objectives:
    i.Allow the transfer of novel genes from related wild species.
    ii.Establish genetic relationships between sexually incompatible crop plants.

    2.Define RAPD and mention it's objectives.
    Ans). RAPD- Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA

    Objectives:
    i.RAPD markers are employed in the construction of genetic maps.
    ii.RAPD is used to distinguish between variety is based on difference in DNA sequence.

    3.Define Somaclonal Variations.
    Ans).Somaclonal variation is the variation seen in plants that have been produced by plant tissue culture. Chromosomal rearrangements are an important source of this variation.

    Objectives:
    i.Somaclonal variation leads to the creation of additional genetic variability.
    ii.The major likely benefit of somaclonal variation is plant/crop improvement.

    4.Define Molecular Breeding.
    Ans).Molecular breeding is defined as a branch of plant breeding which utilizes molecular genetic tools and approaches for genetic improvement of crop plants. In other words, genetic improvement of crop plants for various economic traits using molecular marker and transformation technologies is referred to as molecular plant breeding.

    5.What are mutagens?
    Ans).Agents with cause mutation in the organism are called mutagens. There are different classes of mutagens based on their chemical or physical properties. All these mutagens induce mutations in the genome by the structural or chemical modification of the genetic material (DNA).

    Source: Running Notes and Internet(Wikipedia,Biology Discussion and other websites)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. DEAR REVANTH, WRITE YOUR NAME AND NUMBER BEFORE SUBMISSION.

      Delete
  9. Unit-1
    PLASMIDS:
    A gentic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosome Typically small circular DNA strands in the cytoplasam of the bacterium.

    MESOSOMES:
    An organelle of bateria that appears as an invagination of plasma membrane and funtion either in DNA replication and
    cell division or excretion of enzyme.

    SUICIDAL BAGS:
    Lysosomes are called as suicidal bags. They are filled with digestive enzyme. These enzymes also digest any kind of worn out cell organelles or foreign materials bacteria or virus that enter the cell.

    NUCLEOSOME MODEL:
    A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes,consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protien cores. This structure often compared to thread wrapped around a pool.

    CELL THEORY:
    Living organisms are made up of cells.
    Cells are basic structural and functional unit of all organisms.
    Cells come from pre- existing cells.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. WRITE YOUR NAME AND RESUBMIT YOUR ASSIGNMENT.

      WHO PROPOSED THE CELL THEORY?

      Delete
  10. Unit-1
    PLASMIDS:
    A gentic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosome Typically small circular DNA strands in the cytoplasam of the bacterium.

    MESOSOMES:
    An organelle of bateria that appears as an invagination of plasma membrane and funtion either in DNA replication and
    cell division or excretion of enzyme.

    SUICIDAL BAGS:
    Lysosomes are called as suicidal bags. They are filled with digestive enzyme. These enzymes also digest any kind of worn out cell organelles or foreign materials bacteria or virus that enter the cell.

    NUCLEOSOME MODEL:
    A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes,consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protien cores. This structure often compared to thread wrapped around a pool.

    CELL THEORY:
    Living organisms are made up of cells.
    Cells are basic structural and functional unit of all organisms.
    Cells come from pre- existing cells.

    Submitted by DB 60

    ReplyDelete
  11. Unit-1
    PLASMIDS:
    A gentic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosome Typically small circular DNA strands in the cytoplasam of the bacterium.

    MESOSOMES:
    An organelle of bateria that appears as an invagination of plasma membrane and funtion either in DNA replication and
    cell division or excretion of enzyme.

    SUICIDAL BAGS:
    Lysosomes are called as suicidal bags. They are filled with digestive enzyme. These enzymes also digest any kind of worn out cell organelles or foreign materials bacteria or virus that enter the cell.

    NUCLEOSOME MODEL:
    A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes,consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protien cores. This structure often compared to thread wrapped around a pool.

    CELL THEORY:
    Living organisms are made up of cells.
    Cells are basic structural and functional unit of all organisms.
    Cells come from pre- existing cells.

    Submitted by DB 60

    ReplyDelete
  12. Unit - 3
    Monohybrid cross:
    The cross is made b/w 2 induviduals differ in one character.
    Dihybrid cross:
    The cross is made b/w 2 induviduals differ in two contrasting character.

    Test cross:
    Cross made b/w F1 hybrid with its recessive parent.
    Back cross:
    If a cross is made b/w F1 hybrid with any one of its parents.

    Linkage:
    It is a presence of two or more genes on the chromosomes as a result the genes inherited together more offenly.

    Euchromatin:
    Light strain
    Less condensed
    G snd C are more rich.
    Heterochromatin:
    Dark strain
    More condensed
    A and T are more.

    Crossing over:
    An exchange of homologous segments b/w the non sister chromatids.
    It occurs during pachytene of meosis- 1
    Recombination occurs during crossing over.

    ReplyDelete
  13. Unit - 3
    Monohybrid cross:
    The cross is made b/w 2 induviduals differ in one character.
    Dihybrid cross:
    The cross is made b/w 2 induviduals differ in two contrasting character.

    Test cross:
    Cross made b/w F1 hybrid with its recessive parent.
    Back cross:
    If a cross is made b/w F1 hybrid with any one of its parents.

    Linkage:
    It is a presence of two or more genes on the chromosomes as a result the genes inherited together more offenly.

    Euchromatin:
    Light strain
    Less condensed
    G snd C are more rich.
    Heterochromatin:
    Dark strain
    More condensed
    A and T are more.

    Crossing over:
    An exchange of homologous segments b/w the non sister chromatids.
    It occurs during pachytene of meosis- 1
    Recombination occurs during crossing over.

    Submitted by DB 60

    ReplyDelete
  14. 1.Plasmid:
    In addition to the nucleoid,bacterial cytoplasm normally contains one or more circular molecules of double stranded DNA called plasmids.

    2.Mesosomes:
    In bacterial cells, the plasma membrane shows infoldings invading the cytoplasm. It took part in respiration in mitochondria.

    3.Mitochondria :
    It is a double membrane bounded cell organelle having disc shaped. The inner membrane contains several infoldings called cristae.it is the power house of the cell.

    4.Suicidal bags :
    During starvation the lysosomes kill themselves and release undigested food matetial .

    5.Nucleosome model :
    The chromosomes are in the form of chromatin material and appears like a bead like structure called nucleisome. It contains four basic histone proteins and form octamer.

    6.Mitochondria called semi autonomous cell organelle because they have their own DNA and ribosomes that are able to make their own proteins.
    Chloroplast called semi autonomous cell organelle because have chlorophyll photosynthetic plants make own food.

    7.euchromatin:light staining part of DNA. It is generally active and loosely coiled.
    Heterochromatin:darkly stained portion of chromatin.dna is densely coiled and genetically inert.

    8.Nucleottide:sugars +nitrogen bases+phosphate.
    Nucleoside:nitrogen bases+phosphates.

    9.semi conservative replication :
    This would produce two copies that each contained one of the original strands and one new strand. This would leave the two original template DNA strands together in a double helix produce copy composed of two new strands.

    10.DNA:
    Double stranded molecule.
    Deoxyribose sugar.
    Contains T as nitrogenous base.
    It is the hereditory material in the nucleolous of the cells.
    Rna:
    Single stranded nucleic acid
    Contains ribose sugar
    Involved in protein synthesis
    Both in nucleus and cytoplasm

    11.Test cross:
    Cross f1hybrid with its recessive parent.
    Back cross:
    Cross between f1 hybrid with any one of its parents.

    12.linkage:
    The tendency of genes to remain together in the same chromosome.
    Crossing over:
    Exchange of chromosomal segments between non sister chromatids.

    13.coupling:
    If two alleles such as A and B come from the same parent (AABB*aabb)then they enter into same gametes and transmit together.
    Repulsion:
    If two alleles come from the different parents(AAbb*aaBB)enter into different gametes at the time of gametogenesis.

    14.Plant breeding:
    Phenomena of development of new varieties of plants possessing desirable characters from the already existing varieties.
    Objectives:
    Obtain high yield variety.
    Improve quality, size, shape, colour, taste.
    Improve disease, drought and pest resistance.

    15.emasculation:
    Removal of male sex organ without any damage to female reproductive organ.

    16.Acclimitisation:
    The newly introduced varieties has to adopt or adjust itself to the changed climatic conditions.

    17.hybridisation:
    Crossing of two plants of dissimilar genotype.
    Objectives:
    To crate genetic variation.
    Segregation and recombination produce many new gene.

    18.types of chromosomal mutations:
    1.deletion:remove of small part
    2.inversion:reattachment of same chromosome
    3.translocation:repetation of same gene sequence
    4.nondisjunction:transfer of a part of chromosome to another
    5.duplication:failure of chromosomes to separate during meiosis.

    19.inbreed lines:
    Production of offsprings from the mating of individuals that are closely related genetically.

    20.Mutages:
    The physical or chemical agent significantly increases the mutation.
    Physical mutagens:radiation and heat
    Chemical mutagens:basic analogs, alkylating agents, metals, deaminating agents, intercalating agents




    ReplyDelete
  15. 21.RFLP:restriction fragment length polymorphism
    Objectives:
    Allow the transfer of novel genes from related wild species.
    Establish genetic relationships between sexually incomparable crop plants.

    22.RAPD:random amplified polymorphic dna
    Objectives:
    These markers are employed in the construction of genetic map.
    Used to distinguish between variety based on difference in DNA sequence

    23.watson and crick model:
    They proposed a model for DNA structure called double helix model. On the basis of this model DNA is made up of two polynucleottide chains.

    24.cell brain:
    Nucleus is called cellbrain because all the functions of the cell are under the control of the nucleus inside the cell.

    25 .mass selection :
    Number of phenotypically superior plants from field population harvesting and bulking produce together for next year's crop and repeating process till desired characters are achieved.
    Pureline selection:
    Process of isolating a desirable homozygous individual from mixed population and multiplying the same without contamination to release as a new variety.
    Clonal selection:
    A variety is propagated vegetative from a single plant called clone or single plant obtained by asexual reproduction.

    ReplyDelete
  16. Unit -4
    Acclimitization:
    The newly introduced varieties has to adapt or adjust itself to the changed climatic conditions. This adjustment is called acclimitization.


    Hybridization:
    The mating or crossing of two plants or lines of dissimilar genotype is known as hybridization.
    Objectives:
    To create genetic variation
    Seggregation and recombination produce many new gene combinations.


    Emasculation:
    Removal of male sex organs or killing that part of the flower without any disturbances to female reproductive organ is known as emasculation.
    Bagging:
    The flower is enclosed in suitable bag to prevent random cross pollination.


    Mass selection:
    Harvesting and bulking their produce together for sowing the next year crop and repeating this process till desired charaters are achieved.
    Pure line seletion:
    Multiplying the same without contamination to release as a new variety.
    Clonal selection:
    All the vegetative progenies of a single plant are called a clone.


    Plant breeding:
    Development of new varities of plants posses desrirable characters from already exsisting variaties.
    Objectives:
    To abtain high yeilding variety.
    To improve the quality, size etc.

    Submitted by visali

    ReplyDelete
  17. Unit -5
    Spontaneous mutations:
    If change occurs naturally in the DNA Structure.
    Induced mutations:
    Change is caused by mutagens.



    Chromosomal mutations:
    Deletion
    Inversion
    Translocation
    Non disjunction
    Duplication.


    Mutagen:
    Any agent that cause change
    Types of mutagens:
    Physical:
    Radiation and heat
    Chemical:
    Ethyl methane sulfonate.


    DNA markers:
    It is a small segment of known DNA that is used in molecular biology to identify sequence of genome in a pool of unknown DNA.


    RFLP:
    Restriction fragment length polymerization.
    RAPD:
    Rapid amplify Polymorphic DNA.

    Submitted by visali.

    ReplyDelete
  18. BOTANY PAPER-V
    SEMESTER-V
    TOPICS:CELL BIOLOGY,GENETIC,PLANT
    BREEDING

    SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS
    UNIT-1 CELL BIOLOGY

    1.what is Celltheory and what are it's
    objectives?
    A.cell theory was proposed by
    scientists MATHHIAS SCHLEIDEN and
    THEODOR SCHWANN(1839).
    In biology, cell theory is the
    historic and scientific theory
    which is accepted universally.
    cell theory deals with the
    properties of the cell,These are the
    structural and functional units of
    the organism and also regarded as
    basic unit of reproduction.

    OBJECTIVES:
    1.All living organisms are composed
    of one or more cells.
    2.The cell is the basic unit of
    structure and organization in
    organisms.
    3.The cell arise from the pre
    existing cells.

    2.why mitochondria and chloroplast are
    called semi autonomous Cell
    organelles?
    A.Mitochondria and chloroplast are
    called semi autonomous organelles due
    to following reasons:
    1.They have DNA,RNA,ribosomes and
    other materials required for
    synthesis of their own
    essential protiens.
    2.They manufacture their own
    enzymes.
    3.They can multiply and give rise
    to New organelles of same kind.

    3.which of the cell organelles are said
    as suicidal bags?
    A.Lysosomes are called as suicidal bags
    As they contain digestive enzymes
    That break down waste,forgiven
    materials and cellular debris,that
    Are capable of digesting fats,nucleic
    acids etc.
    Lysosomes digest their own
    Cells by their enzymes and leads to
    Death .This process is also named as
    AUTOLYSIS.

    4.Why Plasma Membarane is called as
    Semi permeable Membarane?
    A.Plasma Membarane is called semi
    Permeable Membarane because it allows
    Only certain molecules to pass
    through like:-
    Oxygen
    Carbon Dioxide
    Minerals and Protiens etc.
    It's is highly selective in deciding
    Which molecules are to be allowed to
    Pass through the Membarane.

    5.Define Plasmid and mesosomes?
    A.Plasmid:
    It's typically a small circular
    DNA strand in cytoplasm of a
    Bacterium or protozoan.They can
    Replicate independently of the
    Chromosome.
    eg: prokaryotic cell.

    Mesosomes:
    Mesosomes is a convoluted membranous
    Structure i.e these are the finger
    Like projections those arise from the
    Wall of the plasma Membarane.
    They help in secretion processes
    eg: bacterial cell.



    SUBMITTED BY
    A.AKSHITA (DB:53)

    ReplyDelete
  19. Unit-1:CELL BIOLOGY:
    What is mesosomes?
    .The plasma membrane shows the finger like projections/folding called "mesosomes.
    .mesosomes tends to increase the plasma membrane's surface and in turn also increases their enzymatic contents.
    .It helps in the respiratory process .

    2.why plasma membrane is called as selectively permeable membrane?
    .The plasma membrane is a thin,elastic membrane around the cell.
    .The plasma membrane and other intra-cellular membrane are selective in nature.such membrane allow only selected ions and some molecules to pass through them.
    .The selective permeability of plasma membrane allows the cell to maintain constant internal environment .

    3.why mitochondria and chloroplast are called as semi autonomous cell organelles?
    .These is due to presence of a single circular naked DNA &70s type of
    ribosomes.
    .These organelle is present in the mitochondria and chloroplast to the mode of synthesis of proteins indicates
    towards the semiautonomus or symbiotic nature.

    4.Define fluid music model?
    .In 1972,"Singer & Nicolson" proposed these highly advanced theory .
    .The ends of the lipid molecules shows
    hydrophilic and hydroponic head & tails rrespectively termed as " fluid mosaic mmodel".

    5.Define sui-cidal bags?
    .Lysosomes are known as "sui-cidal bags.
    .Lysosomes are single membrane move immatured/embryonic cells round shape.
    .Lysosomes are primary and secondary.
    .primary- filled with hydrolytic enzyme,actively involve in all functions.
    .secondary-filled with undigested food material .
    Submitted by:
    M.jyothi
    DB-17

    ReplyDelete
  20. Unit-2: GENETICS:

    1.Define nucleosome model?
    .A bead like structure of the chromatin fibres each one composed of a octomer of histone and 146 base pair containing DNA molecules.
    .The nucleosome model consists of 4 pairs of basic proteins H2A,H2B,H3B,H4.

    2.Define transduction and conjugation?
    .Transduction:The process by which foreign DNA is introduced into a cell by a virus or viral vector.
    .Conjugation:The transfer of genetic material between bacterial cell by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge like connection between two cells.

    3.Define translocation?
    .The transfer of part of a chromosome to a different position especially,on nonhomologous chromosome.

    4.Define lysis and bacteriophage?
    .Lysis:The disintegration of cell by rupture of the cell wall or membrane.
    .Bacteriophage:A virus that parasitizes
    a bacterium by infecting it & reproducing inside it.

    5.Define semi conservative model?
    .The progressive separation of the two parental strands,each strand act as a template strand for the synthesis of new complementary strand.As a result two DNA molecules are produced. Each molecule one is old and anotherstrand is new strand.

    Submitted by:
    M.Jyothi
    DB-17

    ReplyDelete
  21. UNIT-2 GENETIC MATERIAL

    1.Define Watson and Crick model ?
    A.watson and Crick proposed DNA double
    helix Model(1953).It consists of two
    Phosphate chains which act as backbones.
    The nitrogen base pairs are connected by
    Hydrogen bonds.Both the phosphate chains
    Run opposite around the central axis.
    Watson and Crick are awarded with
    A nobel prize in the year (1962)for their
    Discovery.

    2.Differntiate between nucleoside and
    nucleiostide?
    A.Nucleoside:
    A nucleoside consists of a
    Nitrogenous base covalently attached to
    A sugar but without phosphate group.
    Nucleotide:
    A nucleotide consists of a
    nitrogenous base,sugar and one to three
    Phosphate groups.

    3.what is semi conservative method of
    replication?
    A.The progressive separation of two
    parental strands,each strand act as
    template strand for synthetis of new
    Complementary strand .As a result two DNA
    Molecules are produced.each molecule has
    One old and new strands

    4.Define Linkage and Crossing over?
    A.Linkage:
    It is the presence of two or more
    Genes on the chromosome as a result the
    Genes inherited together more oftenly is
    Called linkage.
    Crossing over:
    An exchange of homologous
    segments between non-sister chromatids
    It occurs during pachytene sub phase of
    Prophase-1 of meiosis-1.

    5.Define Law of independent Assortment?
    A.This law is proposed by GREGOR MENDEL.He
    Stated that ehen two or more characters
    Are inherited,indi indivi heriditary
    factors assort independently during
    Gamete production, giving different
    traits an equal opportunity of occuring
    Together.



    Submitted by
    A.Akshita (DB-53)

    ReplyDelete
  22. SEMESTER-V

    BOTANY PAPER-V

    TITLE :Cell biology, Genetics , Plant breeding.

    Short answers:


    1.CELL BIOLOGY

    1)What is Cell Theory and Mention it's Objectives?
    Ans)Cell theory is one of the basic principals of biology . This theory says that new cells are formed from other existing cells. This theory was given by German scientists Schleiden, Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.

    Objectives:
    i)Living organisms composed of one (or) more cells.
    ii)Cell is the most basic unit of life.
    iii)All cells arise only from preexisting cells.
    iv)Activity of an organism depend on the total activity of independent cells.


    2)What is plasmid? Mention it's role?
    Ans)Plasmids are extra chromosomal ,naked, small, circular, double stranded DNA molecules capable of self replicating and present in bacterial cells. Plasmids can integrate themselves with the main bacterial chromosome to form episomes. They are several types of plasmids F plasmid ,R plasmid etc..


    3)What are mesosomes? Mention it's role?
    Ans) Mesosomes are the finger like projections originated from plasma membrane into the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells .The mesosomes are filled with respiratory enzymes.

    The main function of mesosomes to perform respiration,it also increase the surface area of cell membrane, it also performs DNA replication.


    4 ) Why mitochondria and chloroplast are called semiautonomous cell organelles?
    Ans)Mitochondria and Chloroplast are called semi-autonomous cell organelles because they have their own genetic material and are capable of synthesising proteins required for their functioning.It also have ability to undergo auto catalysis and heterocatalysis.

    5)Why Nucleus is called cell brain?
    Ans) Replication occurs in the nucleus so it is called cell brain.It also holds information needed to conduct most of the cells function.

    ReplyDelete
  23. II)GENETICS

    1)Semi conservative method of replication:.
    Semiconservative replication produce two copies that each contained one of the original strand i.e,parental strand and one new strand i.e, daughter strand .semiconservative replication leaves the two original template DNA strands together in a double helix& produce a copy composed of two new strands containing of all the new DNA base pairs.

    2)Hershey -chase experiment:
    This experiment help it to confirm that DNA is a genetic material .They used T2 phage ,a bacteriophage. The phage infects a bacterium by attaching to it and injecting it's genetic material into it. They put labels on phage DNA with radioactive phosphorus.
    They clearly showed that DNA of T2 phage is transmitted from one generation to next while proteins are not transmitted .Atleast in T2. phage ,DNA is genetic material.

    3)Watson and Crick model:
    They proposed double helix structure of DNA the also received a noble prize in 1962.
    DNA is a double standard helical molecule. It consists of two sugar phosphate back bones on the outside held together by hydrogen bond between pairs of nitrogenous bases on inside.

    4)Clover leaf model:
    Holley proposed cloverleaf model in order to explain the structure of t-rna According to this model t-rna consists of 3 loop like structures.
    The 3 loop are collected together with the help of an unequal stalk fight structure one side of a stalk is 3'end and another side is 5' end. The loop that is present opposite to a stalk called anticodon loop (or) Amino acid attachment site. In this loop only specific type of amino acid acid with specific triplet cordon attached during the process of protein synthesis. The remaining 2 lateral loops are enzyme recognising site and ribosomal recognising site .Transfer RNA identify and transport specific type of amino acid to the site of protein synthesis.

    5)Nucleosome model:
    The nucleosome is a bead like inside the nucleus if observed under the electron microscope.
    The nucleosome consists of 8 basic proteins in the form of a core i.e, octamer.Around the core the DNA molecule wraps twice between two nucleosome a DNA is present that is called Linker DNA that is associated with a special type of protein H1 protein. Nucleosome consists the repeating uses of basic proteins and DNA in side the nucleus that is called chromatin material.

    ReplyDelete
  24. III.MENDELIAN INHERITANCE


    1) Testcross and Backcross?
    Test cross: The cross between F1 progeny and the recessive homozygous parent is called Test cross(Tt×tt)
    In test cross both the progenies are obtained in F2 generation.
    Back cross: if F1 hybrid is crossed with one of its parents is called back cross.(Tt×TT/tt).When F1 hybrid is back crossed with dominant phenotype no recessive individual are obtained in the progeny.


    2) Define Law of independent assortment?
    Ans) It states that "two pairs of traits are combined in a hybrid segregation of one pair is independent of the other pair of characters."


    3)Define Law of segregation?
    Ans) It states that "two alleles of a gene when present together in a heterozygous
    state do not fuse or blend in any way but remain distinct and segregate during meiosis or in the formation of gametes so that each meiotic product or gamate will carry only one of them".


    4)Define linkage and crossing over?
    Ans) Linkage: The tendency of genes remain together in the same chromosome is called linkage. Two (or) more genes carry on a particular chromosome are called linked genes. All the genes on a pair of homologous chromosomes collectively form linkage group.
    Crossing over:The exchange of chromosomal segments between two non sister chromatids is called crossing over.The term crossing over coined by T.H Morgan in 1912.Recombinations occurs during meiosis because of crossing over .


    5)Define Coupling and Repulsion theory?
    Ans)Coupling theory:If two alleles such as 'AB' come from the same parent(AABB×aabb) then they will enter into the same gamates and transmit together.This is called coupling theory.
    Repulsion theory: When the same alleles (A&B) come from the different parents(AAbb×aaBB) then they will enter into different gamates at the time of gametogenesis. This is called repulsion theory.

    ReplyDelete
  25. Unit-3:MENDLIAN INHERITANCE :

    1.Define test cross & back cross ?
    .Test cross:The cross between F1 hybrid with its recessive parent .
    .Back cross :If a cross is made between F1 hybrid with any one of its parent.

    2.Define law of independent assortment?
    . The law of independent assortment is a principle of inheritance that each heritable allele is inherited independently of one another.

    3.Define law of dominance?
    . The law of dominance "when two alleles of an inherited pair is heterozygous,then the allele that is expressed is dominant whereas the allele that is not expressed is recessive".

    4.Define linkage and crossing over ?
    .Linkage:The tendency of gene to remain together in the same chromosome .
    .crossing over :An exchange of homologous segments between the non-sister chromatin .It occurs during pachytene surface of prophase-1 of meiosis-1 .Recombination of characters occur during crossing over.

    5.Define coupling and repulsion theory?
    . "Watson and pullet" in 1906 they discovered the phenomenon of linkage and crossing over by using "lathyrus" for their experiments .They observed coupling and repulsion process due which they proposed a theory called coupling and repulsion theory.
    Coupling- If two alleles from the same parent then they enter into the same gamets and they transmit together these is called coupling.
    Repulsion- when the same alleles come from the different parents then they will enter into different camera at the time of gametogenesis.

    Submitted by:
    M.jyothi
    DB-17

    ReplyDelete
  26. IV. PLANT BREEDING


    1)What is Acclimatisation?
    Ans)It is a phenomenon of which the individual plant species adapt to the surrounding environmental conditions .


    2)What is plant breeding? Give any 2 objectives?
    Ans)It is a science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. It has been used to improve the quality of nutrition in products for humans and animals.
    Objectives:
    1) Higher yield
    2) Disease and pest resistance.
    3)Improved quality.
    4) agronomic characters.


    3)Define Mass line,Pure line, Clonal selection?
    Ans) Mass line selection:
    It can be defined as selection of a number of phenotypically superior seeds from the field population harvesting and bulking their produce together for sowing the next year's crop and process is repeated till desirable characters are achieved.
    Pure line selection:
    It can be defined as the process of isolating a desirable homozygous individuals from the mixed population and multiplying the same without contamination to release as a new variety.
    Clonal selection:
    A variety that is propagated vegetative from single parent is called clone. Selection of Desirable clones from the mixed population of vegetative propagated crops called clonal selection.


    4)What is hybridisation?Any two objectives?
    Ans) Mating (or) crossing of two plants of dissimilar genotype is called hybridisation.It does not change any genetic contents of organisms but it produces new combination of genes.

    Objectives:
    1)To create genetic variation,when two phenotypically different plants are brought together in F1.
    2) Segregation and recombinations produce new gene combinations in F2 .


    5)Define Emasculation and bagging?
    Ans) Emasculation: Removal of stamens from the selected female flower is called emasculation. It is done to prevent self pollination. The emasculation can be done by many methods.
    Bagging: After emasculation the female flowers are covered with the help of polythene bag . This prevents unnecessary cross pollination.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. DEAR MADHURI,
      I RECEIVED YOUR ASSIGNMENT.

      Delete
  27. Unit -4 PLANT BREEDING :

    1.Define plant breeding and mention two objectives?
    .The phenomenon of development of new varieties of plants possessing desirable characters from the already existing varieties .
    Objectives:
    1.To obtain high yielding variety .
    2.To improve disease,drought resistance.

    2.Define acclimitization?
    .Adjustment of introduced plants in new locality a changed climatic condition.such plants are disease resistance due to change in environment but chances to adultrent seeds.
    Eg:Parthenon Hysterophorous
    Argentina Mexicana

    3.Define hybridization ?
    .The mating or crossing of two plants or lines of dissimilar genotype is called hybridization .
    Objectives:
    1.To create genetic variation.
    2.segregation and recombination produce many new gene combination.

    4.Define pure line selection ?
    .It can be defined as the process of isolating a desirable homozygous individual from the mixed population and multiplying the same without contamination to release as a new variety.

    5.Define clonal selection ?
    .A variety that is propagated vegetative from a single plant is clone of a single plant obtained by sexual reproduction or all vegetative progenies of a single plant is called a clone.
    Submitted by:
    M.Jyothi
    DB-17

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. DEAR JYOTHI,
      PLEASE CHECK YOUR ANSWER FOR CLONAL SELECTION

      Delete
  28. UNIT-3 MENDELIAN INHERITANCE

    1.Define Test cross and Back cross?
    A.Test cross:
    The cross between F1 progeny with
    It's recessive parents is called test
    Cross.
    Back cross:
    The cross between F1 progeny with
    Any one of the parents is called back cross.

    2.Diffentitae Complete Linkage from
    incomplete linkage?

    A.Complete linkage:
    The genes are completely linked
    Inherited in a set and no recombination
    Is there.
    The gene are usually located very near to
    Each other
    Incomplete linkage:
    The genes are not completely
    Linked and recombination may occur .
    The genes may be a little far from each
    Other.

    3.Define Law of Dominance?
    A.Law of Dominance is also called as law of
    Segregation.This law is proposed by G.J
    MENDEL.
    "It states that When two alkelalof
    an inherited pair is heterozygous then,
    The allele that is expressed is dominant
    Whereas the allele that is not expressed
    Is recessive".


    MAM I HAD WRONGLY POSTED 2 QUESTIONS IN 2ND UNIT . PLEASE CONSIDER THIS APOLOGY AND I WILL TAKE CARE FURTHERLY BY NOT COMMITING THIS MISTAKE AGAIN .


    SUBMITTED BY
    AKSHITA.A (DB-53)

    ReplyDelete
  29. Unit -5 BREEDING, CROP IMPROVMENT & BIOTECHNOLOGY:

    1.Define mutagen ?write any two types of agents ?
    .The physical or chemical agents which greatly enhance the mutation is called mutagen .
    Physical mutagen- uv radiation
    Chemical mutagen -N- Nitroso N-methyl urea.

    2.Define somaclonal variation ?
    .The genetic variations found in the invitro cultured cells are collectively referred as somaclonal variation .

    3.Define chromosomal theory?
    .These theory was proposed by Morgan. According to him genes are present in the pairs of chromosomes and the chromosomal substances binds these linked genes together during the process of inheritance.The degree of linkage is determined by distance of the gene,if the genes are closer the linkage is very strong.

    4.Expand RFLP and mention objectives?
    .RFLP-Restriction frangemt length polymorphism.
    Objectives:
    1.It is extensively used in genome analysis.
    2.The variation is the restriction DNA fragment lengths between individuals of a species.

    5.Define inbreeding?
    . The Mating of individuals or organisms that are closely related through common ancestry .
    Submitted by:
    M.Jyothi
    DB-17


    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. DEAR JYOTHI,

      GOOD, I WILL AWARD FULL MARKS.
      STUDY WELL.

      Delete
  30. V. BREEDING,CROP IMPROVEMENT
    BIOTECHNOLOGY
    1)What is chromosomal mutations?Types of chromosomal mutations?
    Ans) A chromosmal mutation is any change or error that occurs within the chromosome.this occurs during cell processes like mitosis and and meiosis
    Types:
    1)Deletion:Removal of small part.
    2)Inversion: Reattachment of same chromosome.
    3)Duplication: Repitition of same general sequence.
    4)Translation:Transfer of a part to another part of chromosome
    5)Non disjunction:Failure of chromosome to separate during meiosis.


    2) Define spontaneous and induced mutations?
    Ans) Spontaneous mutation:If change caused by radiation in a DNA structure.
    Induced mutation:Change caused by radiation (or) environmental mutagen.


    3) what is mutagen? Agents of mutagens?
    Ans) The agent that significantly increases the mutation is called mutagen.
    Agents:
    1)Physical mutagens:
    A) UV radiation.
    B) Electromagnetic radiation
    C) Corpuscular radiation
    2)Chemical mutagens:
    A) Dimethyl sulphate
    B) Sodium azide
    C) Ethyl methane sulfonate


    4)DNA markers? And role in plant breeding?
    Ans) It is a fragment of DNA that is associated with in the genome in order to trace genetic alternations especially in the branch of biotechnology and molecular biology.DNA markers are used to identify particular sequence of DNA in a pool of unknown DNA.
    Ex:RFLP,RAPD.


    5)Expand RFLP,RAPD?
    Ans)RFLP: Restriction fragments length polymorphism.
    RAPD: Rapid. amplifier polymorphic DNA.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. DEAR JYOTHI,

      IN VTH question- no coma after rapid

      Delete
  31. DEAR MADHURI,

    PLEASE CHECK YOUR FOR SPONTANEOUS AND INDUCED MUTATIONS.

    WRONG ANSWER.

    ReplyDelete