Monday, March 1, 2021


 Student Project Evaluator

1.  Dr. B. Siva Kumari, Department of Botany, invited as Student Project Evaluator  on the eve of National Science Day Celebrations at Regional Science Center, Bhavanipurum organized by the Department of Education, Krishna District in collaboration with APCOST on  1st March 2021


                                                     FARMERS FRIENDLY GUN

                                                                FOG PONICS
                                              SAFTY ALARUM IN KITCHEN
                                                     SAVE LIVES- TRAIN ACCIDENTS

Sunday, February 28, 2021


VII(B) (Optional) Theory Paper VII(B)-T: Nursery, Gardening and Floriculture.

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

Unit I: Nursery:                                                                                                (12 hrs.)

1.    Definition, objectives, scope and building up of infrastructure for nursery.

2.    Planning and seasonal activities - Planting - direct seeding and transplants.

3.  Nursery Management and Routine Garden Operations.

      Unit II: Gardening                                                                                           (12 hrs.)

1.          Definition, objectives and scope - different types of gardening.

 2      Components of Gardening: soil laying, manuring, watering. 

 3.     Landscape and home gardening - parks and its components, plant materials and design.

4.       Landscaping Places of Public Importance: Landscaping highways and Educational Institutions

5.      Computer applications in landscaping.

6.     Some Famous gardens of India- brief account

     Unit III: Propagation methods                                                                         (12 hrs)

1.     Vegetative Methods:

a) Layering, Grafting.

b) Cutting: selection of cutting, propagule collecting season

c) Propagation of ornamental plants by rhizomes, corms, tubers, bulbs and bulbils.

  treatment of cutting, rooting medium and planting of cuttings Hardening

2. Sexual Method: Sowing/raising of seeds and seedlings, transplanting of  seedlings.

 3. Green house –Definition, objectives, Basic infrastructure (outlines)     

     types- mist chamber, shed roof, shade house and glass house for propagation.

Unit IV- Floriculture                                                                                              (12 hrs.)

1.   Ornamental Plants:

           a)  Flowering annuals-  herbaceous plants

           b) Flowering Perennials- Divine vines; Shade and ornamental trees.

   2.  Ornamental bulbous and foliage plants; Cacti and succulents.

   3.  Ornamentals-palms.

    4.    Indoor cultivation:

       a)      Indoor gardening- cultivation of plants in pots;

   (kitchen garden, hanging baskets, terrarium(brief account only)

  5.    Bonsai: Introduction, objectives and Basic requirements,

Unit V: Commercial Floriculture                                                               (12 hrs.)

1.  Cut Flowers:

a) Factors affecting flower production; Production and packaging of cut  flowers;

 b) Flower arrangements; Methods to prolong vase life of flowers

2. Cultivation of Important cut flowers (Carnation, Aster, Dahlia, Gerbera, Anthuriams,    

    Gladiolous, Marigold, Rose, Lilium) brief account only

   3.  Pest: Definition, Management of pests, diseases (outlines)

   4.  Harvesting: Introduction, and methods of harvesting


Tuesday, April 21, 2020



rhizome is a modified subterranean plant stem that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes. Rhizomes are also called creeping rootstalks or just rootstalks. Rhizomes develop from axillary buds and grow horizontally.
Eg: Zingiber officinalis
 Air layering:

Air layering is a method of propagating new trees and shrubs from stems still attached to the parent plant. The stem is wrapped with damp moss to encourage roots to form.

Bonsai are trees and plants grown in containers in such a way so that they look their most beautiful--even prettier than those growing in the wild.
Green house:

A greenhouse is a structure with walls and roof made chiefly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown. These structures range in size from small sheds to industrial-sized buildings.
 Terrarium :

A terrarium is usually a sealable glass container containing soil and plants, and can be opened for maintenance to access the plants inside. However, terraria can also be open to the atmosphere rather than being sealed. Terraria are often kept as decorative or ornamental item

 Cut flowers :

Cut flowers are flowers or flower buds (often with some stem and leaf) that have been cut from the plant bearing it. It is usually removed from the plant for decorative use........................... Many gardeners harvest their own cut flowers from domestic
gardens, but there is a significant floral industry for cut flowers in most countries.

Floriculture, or flower farming, is a discipline of horticulture concerned with the cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and for floristry, comprising the floral industry. The development, via plant breeding, of new varieties is a major occupation of floriculturists

Vase life is the period during which a cut flower or cut foliage retains its appearance in a vase. This is a major consideration in identifying plant species suitable for use in floristry, plants with a long vase life being far more desirable than those with a short vase life.

A pest is any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products. Plants may be considered pests themselves if an invasive species. The animal groups of greatest importance as pests (in order of economic importance) are insects, mites, nematodes and gastropods.
  Pesticides :

Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds. The term pesticide includes all of the following: herbicide, insecticides nematicide,molluscicide, piscicide, avicide, rodenticide, bactericide, insect repellent, animal repellent, antimicrobial, and fungicide.


Pruning is a horticultural and silvicultural practice involving the selective removal of certain parts of a plant, such as branches, buds, or roots.. The practice entails
targeted removal of diseased, damaged, dead, non-productive, structurally unsound, or otherwise unwanted tissue from crop and landscape plants.
 Nursery bed preparation :

Seeds should be planted at spacing of 15cm between rows, cover the seeds lightly and mulch the bed with dry grass. The bed should have been watered thoroughly on the day prior to sowing. Mulching a nursery bed soon after sowing seeds is a must. Mulch the seed bed after sowing until germination


A nursery is a place where plants are propagated and grown to a desired age. ...
Some of them specialize in one phase of the process: propagation, growing out, or retail sale; or in one type of plant: e.g., groundcovers, shade plants, or rock garden plants.


A weed is a plant considered undesirable in a particular situation, “a plant in the wrong place”. Examples commonly are plants unwanted in human-controlled settings, such as farm fields, gardens, lawns, and parks.
Eg: parthenium


Gardening is the practice of growing and cultivating plants as part of horticulture.
… It involves an active participation in the growing of plants, and tends to be labor-intensive, which differentiates it from farming or forestry.
Famous gardens in India Lalbagh, Bangalore Brindavan garden, Mysore
Government Botanical Garden, Ooty Sims park, coonor


Bulbs are modified stems of some plants. The stem is modified to be a storage organ where the plant stores its reserve materials
Eg: onions
 Cactus cultivation :

Propagation of cacti is done by both seeds and vegetative methods. Cacti can be grown from seeds but the seedlings grow slowly and take long time to form a specimen. It is commonly used by commercial growers and amateurs who specialise and aim at a large collection of these plants.


Horticulture has been defined as the agriculture of plants, mainly for food, materials, comfort and beauty for decoration. According to American horticulturist Liberty Hyde Bailey, “Horticulture is the growing of flowers, fruits and vegetables, and of plants for ornament and fancy.”
Sub-branches of horticulture :

Floriculture – flowers Olericulture- vegetables Pomoculture – fruits Arbinoculture – woody plants Transplantation :
In agriculture and gardening transplanting or replanting is the technique of moving a plant from one location to another. … In the horticulture of some ornamental plants, transplants are used infrequently and carefully because they carry with them a significant risk of killing the plant.
 Landscaping :

Landscaping refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land, including: living elements, such as flora or fauna; or what is commonly called gardening, the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beauty within the landscape.
 Layering :

Layering has evolved as a common means of vegetative propagation of numerous species in natural environments. Layering is also utilized by horticulturists to propagate desirable plants. Natural layering typically occurs when a branch touches the ground, whereupon it produces adventitious roots

Grafting is a technique that vegetatively joins two plants into one. Instead of cross- pollinating two plants and producing a hybrid seed, grafted plants use the roots and the bottom portion of one plant (rootstock) and attach it to a tender shoot (scion) from the top portion of another plant.

A corm, bulbo-tuber, or bulbotuber is a short, vertical, swollen underground plant stem that serves as a storage organ that some plants use to survive winter or other adverse conditions such as summer drought and heat (perennation)
Eg: Colacasia


Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients. They are used for the plant’s perennation, to provide energy and nutrients for regrowth during the next growing season, and as a means of asexual reproduction. Stem tubers form thickened rhizomes or stolons
Eg: potato
 Mist chamber:

Enclosed structure in which artificially mist is generated for the propagation of Plants or seedlings. In Mist Chamber, Relative humidity is maintained at high level (95 %) with the help of mister’s, which spray water under high pressure.
Seed certification :

seed certification is a process designed to maintain and make available to the general public continuous supply of high quality seeds and propagating materials of notified kinds and varieties of crops, so grown and distributed to ensure the physical identity and genetic purity.

  Indoor gardening:

Indoor gardening is a technique used to grow plants indoors Hydroponic
gardening uses no soil at all. Instead, it relies on growing plants in water (usually attached to a floating substrate), and the use of additives to provide the nutrients that would come from soil if the plants were grown outdoors.

 Factors affecting cut flowers cultivation

Temperature Soil
Water Light Humidity


Harvesting is the process of gathering a ripe crop from the fields. Reaping is the cutting of grain or pulse for harvest, typically using a scythe, sickle, or reaper. On smaller farms with minimal mechanization, harvesting is the most labor-intensive activity of the growing season.

Host plant refers to a plant whereby various types of organisms such as butterflies and other insects lodge and subsist. Butterfly gardens are commonly created using an array of host plants to attract them.


A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. The term is most often used for agents that disrupt the normal physiology of a multicellular animal or plant. However, pathogens can infect unicellular organisms from all of the biological kingdoms.


A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure or function of all or part of an organism, and that is not due to any immediate external injury. Diseases are often known to be medical conditions that are associated with specific symptoms and signs.
 Kitchen gardening :

A kitchen garden is where herbs and vegetables are grown around the house for household use. Since early times a small plot near to the house has been used for growing a variety of vegetables according to the season. Local varieties such as radish, broad leaf mustard, chilli, beans, pumpkins etc.

Hanging baskets

A hanging basket is a suspended container used for growing decorative plants. Typically they are hung from buildings, where garden space is at a premium, and from street furniture for environmental e

Sunday, March 8, 2020

07-03-2020- BOS MEETING

    Dr. B. Siva Kumari, Department of Botany attended BOS Meeting at St. Theresa Women’s College (Autonomous), Eluru on 7th March, 2020 as a Subject Expert  in Botany Subject.

07-03-2010- INVITED TALK

    Dr. B. Siva Kumari, Department of Botany delivered an invited talk on Scope of Biological Sciences for III B.SC Biology Students at St. Theresa Women’s College Eluru, on March 7th, 2020