Friday, November 2, 2018



Paper VIII-A-3 -Theory: Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry

Total hours of teaching 60hrs @ 3hrs per week

Unit-I: Pharmacognosy                                                                                (12hrs)

1.     Pharmacognosy:

a)      Definition, Importance, types, Classification of drugs – Chemical and Pharmacological and Taxonomical methods
2.       Brief account of Drug evaluation methods:
a)      Morphological,  chemical, analytical and biological methods
Unit –II: Organoleptic and Microscopic Studies:                                      (12hrs)

           Organoleptic and microscopic studies with reference to nature of active principles
           and common adulterants of:
a)     Azaridecta indica (bark),
b)     Adhatoda vasica(leaf),
c)       Strychnos  nuxvomica (seed),
d)     Rauwolfia serpentina(root)
e)       Zinziber officinalis
f)       Catharanthus  roseus.
Unit-III: Secondary Metabolites:                                                               (12hrs)

1.      a)Definition of primary and secondary metabolites and their differences.
b) Major types of secondary metabolites- alkaloids, phenolics, terpenes, terpenoids,   and Steroids- (Brief account only)

2.      a) Origin of secondary metabolites, a brief account of extraction of   alkaloids.
b)  Biosynthesis of alkaloids- acetate pathway, mevalonate pathway,   
     shikimate pathway.

     UNIT-IV: Phytochemistry:      (12hrs)                                                                                           

Biosynthesis and sources of drugs:

1.          Phenols-
a)      structural types,
b)     Simple phenolic compounds - Tannins, anthraquinones, coumarins and  
c)      Complex phenolic compounds- Flavonoids, anthocyanins, betacyanins, 
         isoflavonoids phenolic glycosides-  stilbenes
d)      lignins and lignans.
2.          Steroids:
a)      Definition, biological significance
b)      brief account of  sterols, saponins, withanolides, ecdysones, Cucurbitacins
3.                  Alkaloids: Different groups and their bioactivity.
4.                 Volatile oils,
5.                 Aromatherapy.

     UNIT-V: Enzymes, proteins and amino acids as drugs: (12hrs)                                         

1.      a) Definition, importance and types of Vaccines, toxins and toxoids brief account
b) Definition, importance and types of antitoxins, immuno globulins and antiserums   
    in brief.
2.      a) Vitamins: Definition, types and mode of action
   b) Antibiotics – definition, chemical nature, mode of action.

3.     Pharmacological action of plant drugs
a)      Definition, importance and source of tumor inhibitors, PAF antagonists
b)     Definition, importance and source of antioxidants, phytoestrogens
And Enzyme inhibitors

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